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April 19, 2024
April 19, 2024

Examining Sport Cultural Commodities


The relationship between sports and culture is intriguing, with various debates regarding the intertwined ties between societal dynamics and athletic endeavours. Therefore, multiple theories explain sports culture and social interaction, including critical, linguistic (post) structuralism, and cultural studies approach models. These frameworks exhibit common characteristics like emphasis on consumerism, social distinction, hegemony, semiotics, representation, articulation, and bricolage. These traits can help explain how society perceives crucial activities like James’ sneakers, the Lakers game broadcast, and James’s social welfare activities. Although the sports and culture industries have a complex relationship, the connection can be understood better using theories relevant to sports and cultural commodities.


One of the most crucial theories relevant to sports cultural commodities is the critical theory (one of the theories that could be used, Theory (A) known for consumerist one-dimensional culture characteristics. The critical theory uses arguments from scholars like Pierre Bourdieu and Theodor Adorno to critically evaluate the interconnection and dynamics between culture, society, and power structures (Joseph, 2021, p.71). One of its key characteristics is the critique of the consumerist one-dimensional culture promoted in sports. Sports activities are shifting focus from the players and games and emphasizing merchandise advertisement, like how LeBron James’ sneakers are always intertwined with his success. Nowadays, every player has a partnership with a major company to market products, making sports activities less ideal because of the emphasis on promotional messages always targeted to fans. Therefore, this theory evaluates the consumerist nature of sports by critiquing the idea that sports have become a hub for using cultural products like James’ sneakers to drive consumer purchases and promote sports. Cultural products are successfully becoming significant in the promotion of sports because as more fans purchase the promoted items, the targeted sports activities become more widespread.

Examining Sport Cultural Commodities

Examining Sport Cultural Commodities

According to this theory, modern societies are characterized by consumerist cultures where people are primarily passive consumers. When one item or pattern trends, others quickly consume the marketed commodity or practice (Chiu et al., 2022, p.4). In sports, this approach includes creating a false need to drive the consumption of sponsored merchandise, exercises, or practices. Teams, athletes, and events have been commoditized by shifting attention from the activities to profitability and marketability (Herbold et al., 2020). Generally, the consumerist one-dimensional characteristic is common in sports cultural theories because industrial capitalism has capitalized on sports to emphasize passive consumerism.

In addition, critical theory is relevant to sports cultural commodities because of its characteristics that emphasize social distinction and hegemony for power relations. Sports theories are used to create a sense of belonging by focusing on social distinction, where cultural resources and capital are used to promote social inequality (Van et al., 2020, p.4). For instance, sports cultural commodities like polo and golf are often categorized as rich people activities, while soccer or basketball is usually associated with lower-income groups (Esteban-Guitart, 2021, p.172). Moreover, these theories are known for using hegemony to show how sports have become a tool for power relations control (Chersulich et al., 2020). These dynamics are still evident in sports, where specific corporate sponsors and media conglomerates influence sports narratives and coverage. Sports-related theories are known for their unique characteristics associated with social distinction and hegemony for power control.

Another common characteristic of theories used in sports cultural commodities, like the linguistic (post) structuralism theory (the other culture industry theory) (Theory B), is the emphasis on semiotics. Renowned scholars like Jacques Derrida and Ferdinand de Saussure argue that there is always a relationship between language, signs, and meaning (Zhigang et al., 2022, p.4). Similarly, theories relevant to sports cultural commodities emphasize the use of symbols and signs and their importance in constructing meaning or value. Uniforms, gestures, logos, and other common visual elements linked to famous teams or athletes have a symbolic significance. These insights are further supported by post-structuralist thinkers who believe that meaning cannot be fixed because it is derived from the interplay of multiple signs within a particular language system (Dubourg and Baumard, 2022). For example, the phrases comeback and underdog have gained new meaning when used in tournaments to indicate triumph or resilience. Moreover, the targeted theories are known for their emphasis on the deconstruction of texts and words (Zhou et al., 2020). Generally, theories that address sports cultural commodities are known for their characteristic of emphasizing semiotics because signs and language are used to shape meaning when interpreting sporting messages or narratives.

Examining Sport Cultural Commodities

                        The last crucial theories associated with sports cultural commodities are cultural studies approaches (Theory C), known for their unique characteristics of examining representation, articulation, and bricolage. Culturally sensitive theories improve understanding cultural texts’ production, sharing, and reception dynamics (Woods et al., 2020, p.5). Therefore, in sports, messages and narratives are constructed to provide meaning that represents particular groups, individuals, and events. For instance, women athletes in sports media are often used to question gender stereotypes and dominant narratives about femininity. Moreover, theories in this industry emphasize articulation, where activities are connected to broader political, social, and economic contexts (Ratten, 2020). Sports have been used to intersect issues related to class, race, nationalism, and gender disparities. Everything focuses on bricolage, where cultural elements are reconstructed to produce new meanings and identities. Theories in this field are characterized by representation, articulation, and bricolage.

Evaluating the characteristics of theories relevant to sports cultural commodities is essential because they explain how the interpretation of sports texts is actualized. Based on the presented theoretical traits, principles that focus on sports often emphasize consumerism, social distinction, hegemony, semiotics, representation, articulation, and bricolage (Abeza and Sanderson, 2022). These provisions are applied to sports texts to generate meaning or a sense of belonging. For instance, interpreting sports texts using a critical theory lens can show how culture, social hierarchies, or inequalities drive funding, media coverage, sponsorship, and merchandise commercialization. Linguistics and post-structuralism theories show how texts, languages, and images are used to portray athletes, athleticism, and excellence, like how the Nike swoosh is often used to imply prowess (Tinsley, 2023). Cultural approaches are applied to connect fans and provide a cultural context for sports texts. Sport cultural commodities can be understood better using theories with unique characteristics like emphasis on consumerism, social distinction, hegemony, semiotics, representation, articulation, and bricolage.

The Rationale for the Choice

Three primary cases were evaluated to understand how sports actively contribute to cultural and societal elements: LeBron James’ signature sneakers, broadcasting the Lakers games, and James’ social welfare activities. These three events have a thematic and industrial connection by showing how media entertainment, sports culture, and branding firms promote social interaction and shape societal narratives (NBA.com, 2023, 00:01:02). LeBron James is the focal point of these events based on his excellence, social responsibility, and cultural impact as a Lakers team member. Choosing these three cases was strategic to show how sports are essential in shaping societal provisions.

Examining Sport Cultural Commodities

Case 1: LeBron James Signature Sneakers

For a more detailed understanding of sports culture and its intersection with social contexts, I chose LeBron James signature sneakers to illustrate how they have become a cultural product that promotes success and sports activities. Sports personalities have occasionally been used to market particular products and promote passive consumerism, as critical theory explains (Greif, 2020). Similarly, James is a famous basketball player known for wearing his signature Nike sneakers. According to an article posted by The Root in 2020, LeBron James is one of the top 100 most influential African Americans with his roles as an entrepreneur, basketball player, and philanthropist. Therefore, his sneakers have been used to illustrate James’ cultural impact, career success, and social significance (Bryant, 2023). LeBron James sneakers are ideal examples of understanding sports culture.

Evaluating LeBron James’ signature sneakers is crucial because of its multifaceted impacts, especially in the sports branding and advertising industry. Sports culture is about the social interaction of athletes, athleticism, and sports events with the community (Suciu, 2020). Therefore, when people watch James winning in his career wearing Nike sneakers, fans view his footwear as a crucial aspect of his life and success journey. Thus, the shoes symbolize an international icon everyone wants to associate with. People who seek similar styles, achievements, and personalities in the sports industry purchase sneakers, making them desirable sports commodities that further promote sports through product advertisement.

Moreover, this activity is a unique partnership between James and Nike, emphasizing athlete activism, social justice, and corporate responsibility (Abdul-Jabbar, 2020). This structure is common in sports branding and advertising since companies use influencers or athletes’ popularity to increase brand awareness and market products (Beck, 2020). The accompanying industry is the entertainment and fashion sector because James’ sneakers are more than athletic gear. They are a form of lifestyle, entertainment, and fashion trend. This case is crucial because of its diverse impacts on the sports branding, advertising, entertainment, fashion, and lifestyle industries.

Examining Sport Cultural Commodities

Case 2: Lakers Game Broadcast and Documentary

The second illustration showing the intersection between sports and social culture is the extensive coverage of the Lakers game in broadcasts and documentaries. The most convenient way to make society connect with sports is by availing sports events on broadcast shows where more people can participate in the activities even without attending the game (Helin, 2020). Therefore, watching the Lakers game has become a cultural commodity that promotes sports. Generally, the broadcasting and filming of the Lakers games is a crucial example that can illustrate how sports, culture, and society interconnect.

Besides understanding the link between sports culture and social interaction, analyzing this case is crucial because it shows its overarching impacts on the sports broadcasting industry. Large sports activities are often broadcast live or recorded (Kirkland, 2022). As a result, revenue is generated using subscription models and advertising (BET News, 2021). The accompanying industry is the Media and Communication sector because platforms like ESPN and Netflix play a pivotal role in producing and sharing the team’s content (Duarte, 2020). Broadcasts and documentaries featuring the Lakers game are common on broadcast platforms, and studying them is essential because of their impacts on the sports broadcasting industry.

Case 3: LeBron James Social Welfare Activities

The final activity that can adequately show how sports, culture, and society are intertwined is LeBron James’ social welfare activities. As reported by Schneider in a New York Times post on 10th March 2021, James is one of the most influential professional basketball players because he consistently uses his prominence to advocate change and influence public opinion. Discussing James’ social welfare activities is crucial because of their impacts on sports leagues, major sporting events, and information service industries ((Bunn, 2020). According to a post published by NBC News, LeBron James is an internationally recognized voice that leads people to social justice in a racially divided country. He uses his platform to discuss social and political challenges, like in his recent movement, “More Than a Vote ” (Reynolds, 2023). These social welfare activities show sports’ transformative and influential potential in promoting social engagement and community change. The industry that intersects with these activities is the information service industry (Roth and Riley, 2023). The player works with non-profit firms, educational institutions, and government agencies to enhance resource access and address social needs (Liu, 2023). James’ social welfare activities are crucial because they impact vital industries like sports leagues, major sporting events, and information service sectors.

Examining Sport Cultural Commodities


Case 1 Discussion

The cases discussed can be evaluated theoretically using the theories discussed earlier to show how the characteristics of the theories apply to interpreting these real-life scenarios. Starting with LeBron James’ signature sneakers, his marketing and how fans perceive them and respond to their purchase can be explained using the characteristics of critical theory. This model argues that sports and culture are linked with a consumerism approach where famous athletes or sports events create passive consumers (Kawashiri, 2020, p.3). Similarly, because of the admiration that LeBron James gains from fans, his purchase of Nike sneakers has pushed other people to buy the commodities, too. People respond to his sneaker marketing positively and purchase the items. By watching him, other younger players or individuals seeking to attain high accomplish levels and social status buy Nike sneakers. This trend is prevalent among younger Blacks or African Americans who often participate in basketball. As a result, the promotional goals of James’ sneakers lead to more consumer purchases, further increasing basketball sports activities as supported by critical theory.

The Nike sneakers are more than functional because they have been made a symbol of identity and status, as explained by the characteristics of the cultural studies approaches. Moreover, the shoes are used as a form of social distinction because most passive consumers are usually African American fans (Hunnicutt and Renshaw, 2020). The sneaker shoe game is common among Black people who want to emulate their hero’s style. As much as every motivated Black person wants to get the shoes, in most cases, only those with absolute power, money, and resources can afford the legitimate Nike sneakers. Therefore, from all angles, James’ sneakers and their impacts illustrate the characteristics of consumerist one-dimensional culture, social distinction, and hegemony for power.

Examining Sport Cultural Commodities

              In addition, these sneakers have been used as a commodity with a symbolic meaning and various representations. According to the linguistics approach, signs and language are used to create meaning (Cohen, 2020). Similarly, James’ design and the Nike swoosh are often used to illustrate athleticism and sports style, further promoting sports. Different individual and cultural contexts give varying meanings to these commodities. Cultural approaches argue that sports are used for representation, articulation and bricolage (Imbo, 2023). Similarly, James’ footwear is more than a pair of sneakers because it represents coverage of celebrity culture, athlete prowess, and consumerism. Moreover, it is articulated with masculinity and a high-class African American style, making it a tool for celebrity endorsements, design trends and marketing strategies. This case is a perfect example of how linguistic and cultural studies approaches are used to understand sports and culture commodities.

Case 2 Discussion

The Lakers game broadcasts and documentaries are perfect examples of the theories that have been explained. For instance, consumerism, hegemony, semiotics, and articulation can explain how the works have been used to attract more viewers, sponsorships, and funding (McMenamin, 2020). These entertainment provisions make viewers speculate and reflect, leading to mass content consumption. Moreover, the focus on this team is strategically used to reinforce the dominant idea that this group is one of the best in basketball, helping it maintain its status quo. The audience and fans respect and admire the coaches and players in this team because of how they have been broadcasted as superior performers. This case provides examples demonstrating the characteristics of theories relevant to sports cultural commodities.

Similarly, one of the most franchised histories in basketball is the journey of the Los Angeles Lakers. Various documentaries and game broadcasts have been aired to captivate audiences and fans to gain more followers and support (Kennedy and Knight, 2023). The videos, clips, and films have been provided to offer a deeper understanding of the team’s influence and legacy. Through the stories, more people increasingly watch the game and follow the team, ultimately creating more followership, funding and sponsorships that promote sports.

Examining Sport Cultural Commodities

Case 3 Discussion

The last case was James’s social welfare activities, which can be explained using the discussed theories. James prioritizes collective well-being by using his platforms to promote social well-being, challenging materialism or individualism promoted by consumerist approaches discussed in the critical theory (Lockhart, 2023). Moreover, his campaigns demonstrate hegemony because they often argue against discriminative and oppressive dominant powers that harm marginalized populations, as explained by the cultural studies approaches (Sarmiento, 2020). James’ activism emphasizes empathy, social responsibility, and solidarity using strategic philanthropic messages that illustrate semiotics (Nagpal, 2023). Lastly, his messages represent structural reforms for minorities, indicating articulation and bricolage. The case can show how theories addressing sports, culture, and societal representations can be applied to James’ social welfare activities.

The player uses his four-time National Basketball Association (NBA) championship identity to improve social and education assistance as illustrated by the cultural studies approaches. He has participated in various developmental projects in the West Market Street neighborhood involving the construction of residential buildings and sports and entertainment centers (Editors, 2023). He has occasionally partnered with activists to promote sustainability and responsible social development ((Tinsley, 2022). He is always bargaining for affordability and energy efficiency in recreation, healthcare, and education. Generally, the society-oriented activities that James participates in can illustrate how sports, culture, and society intertwine.

The player uses his four-time National Basketball Association (NBA) championship identity to improve social and education assistance (Tinsley, 2022). He has participated in various developmental projects in the West Market Street neighborhood involving the construction of residential buildings and sports and entertainment centers (Editors, 2023). He has occasionally partnered with activists to promote sustainability and responsible social development. He is always bargaining for affordability and energy efficiency in recreation, healthcare, and education. Generally, the society-oriented activities that James participates in can illustrate how sports, culture, and society intertwine.


The critical, linguistic (post) structuralism and cultural studies approach theories help individuals understand the complex relationship between the sports and culture industries. The main theories used to analyze sports activities and texts exhibit common characteristics like emphasis on consumerism, social distinction, hegemony, semiotics, representation, articulation, and bricolage. These frameworks explain why James’ signature Nike sneakers are loved, why the Lakers game broadcast and documentary have many followers, and why James is commended for actively engaging in social welfare activities. Due to the influential power of sports in modern society, relevant authorities should track how they influence societal norms, behaviors, and decisions to ensure that they have a positive influence.

Examining Sport Cultural Commodities

Reference List

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Beck, H. 2020. LeBron Speaks, and the NBA follows. Bleacher Report. Available at https://bleacherreport.com/articles/2899766-lebron-speaks-and-the-nba-follows

BET News. 2021. NAACP image awards: 10 times LeBron James delivered for social justice. BET.com Available at https://www.bet.com/article/2ovluy/10-times-lebron-james-delivered-for-social-justice

Bryant, H. 2023. Beyond the points and winning, LeBron James’ legacy – for better or worse- will be his empire. ESPN. Available at https://www.espn.com/nba/story/_/id/35653907/beyond-points-winning-lebron-james-legacy-better-worse-empire

Bunn, C. 2020. How LeBron James has become a leading voice for social justice in a racially divided nation. NBC News. Available at https://www.nbcnews.com/news/nbcblk/how-lebron-james-has-become-leading-voice-social-justice-racially-n1231391

Chersulich Tomino, A., Perić, M. and Wise, N., 2020. Assessing and considering the wider impacts of sport-tourism events: A research agenda review of sustainability and strategic planning elements. Sustainability12(11)

Chiu, W.H., Shih, Y.S., Chu, L.S. and Chen, S.L., 2022. Merger and acquisitions integration, implementation as innovative approach toward sustainable competitive advantage: a case analysis from Chinese sports brands. Frontiers in Psychology13, p.4.

Cohen, S. 2020. LeBron James rejects wearing “woke” message on his jersey- sends powerful message instead. Forbes. Available at https://www.forbes.com/sites/sethcohen/2020/07/12/lebron-james-powerful-message/?sh=36c4122d3708

Duarte, M, J. 2020. LeBron James continues to be a leader and activist off the basketball court. NBC Los Angeles. Available at https://www.nbclosangeles.com/news/sports/lebron-james-continues-to-be-a-leader-and-activist-off-the-basketball-court/2379233/

Dubourg, E. and Baumard, N., 2022. Why and how did narrative fictions evolve? Fictions as entertainment technologies. Frontiers in Psychology13

Editors. 2023. LeBron James: Two decades of dominance on and off the court/ Editorial. The Daily Free Press. Available at https://dailyfreepress.com/2023/10/31/lebron-james-two-decades-of-dominance-on-and-off-the-court-editorial/

Examining Sport Cultural Commodities

Esteban-Guitart, M., 2021. Advancing the funds of identity theory: A critical and unfinished dialogue. Mind, Culture, and Activity28(2), pp.169-179.

Greif, A. 2020. LeBron James and Lakers take lead in NBA activism for social justice. Los Angeles Times. Available at https://www.latimes.com/sports/lakers/story/2020-10-13/lakers-lebron-james-nba-social-justice-activism

Helin, K. 2020. LeBron James believes he can play in Orlando, still impact social justice. NBC Sports News. Available at https://www.nbcsports.com/nba/news/lebron-james-believes-he-can-play-in-orlando-still-impact-social-justice-change

Herbold, V., Thees, H. and Philipp, J., 2020. The host community and its role in sports tourism—Exploring an emerging research field. Sustainability12(24), p.10488.

Hunnicutt, T. and Renshaw, J. 2020. NBA star LeBron James emerges as potent political force ahead of U.S. election. Reuters. Available at https://www.reuters.com/article/idUSKBN25O1B9/

Imbo, W. 2023. LeBron James: Shaping a legacy in his 21st season. Olympics. Available at https://olympics.com/en/news/lebron-james-shaping-a-legacy-in-his-21st-season

Joseph, D., 2021. Battle pass capitalism. Journal of Consumer Culture21(1), pp.68-83.

Kawashiri, K. 2020. The Societal Influence of the NBA. Santa Clara University. Available at https://scholarcommons.scu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1054&context=engl_176

Kennedy, P. and Knight B. 2023. LeBron James has staked his legacy on an ambitious social experiment. Is it working? Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Available at https://www.abc.net.au/news/2023-09-21/lebron-james-i-promise-schools-akron-ohio/102873106

Kirkland, T. 2022. LeBron James: Ten reasons why the basketball superstar is loved on and off the court. Olympics.com. Available at https://olympics.com/en/news/lebron-james-ten-reasons-why-basketball-star-is-loved

Liu, J. 2023. On the unseen court: LeBron James’ activism. Medium. Available at https://medium.com/@yanchenliu05/on-the-unseen-court-lebron-james-activism-9f3c9654b986

Lockhart, M. 2023. What does LeBron James do for charity? Sportskeeda. Available at https://www.sportskeeda.com/basketball/what-lebron-james-charity

McMenamin, D. 2020. LeBron James calls Black Lives Matter a walk of life, advocates for Breonna Taylor. ESPN. Available at https://www.espn.com/nba/story/_/id/29528067/lebron-james-calls-black-lives-matter-walk-life-advocates-breonna-taylor

Nagpal, R. 2023. The king’s legacy: how LeBron James transformed the sport of basketball. Available at https://rapidleaks.com/sports/how-lebron-james-transformed-the-sport-of-basketball/

NBA.com. 2023. LeBron James’ global influence evidence of American imprint on rising international stars. NBA.com. Available at https://www.nba.com/watch/video/lebron-james-international-influence-next-generation

Ratten, V., 2020. Sport technology: A commentary. The Journal of High Technology Management Research31(1).

Reynolds, T. 2023. LeBron James’ off-court legacy complements NBA success. NBA.com. Available at https://www.nba.com/news/lebron-james-off-court-legacy-complements-nba-success

Roth, R., and Riley, H. 2023. How LeBron James has inspired change on and off the court. Ask.com. Available at https://www.ask.com/lifestyle/lebron-james-inspired-change-on-off-court-6#:~:text=But%20his%20contributions%20to%20society,whose%20families%20face%20economic%20challenges.

Sarmiento, J. 2020. The impact & influence of LeBron James. The Tack Online Available at https://bvtack.com/33563/uncategorized/the-impact-influence-of-lebron-james/

Schneider, K. 2021. How LeBron James uses his influence to improve community development. The New York Times. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/09/business/lebron-james-community-development.html

Suciu, P. 2020. LeBron James is the most influential celebrity this election cycle, but will that sway voters on social media? Forbes. Available at https://www.forbes.com/sites/petersuciu/2020/11/01/this-celebrity-is-most-influential-during-this-election-cycle-but-will-that-sway-voters-on-social-media/?sh=5333b7e13e62 

Examining Sport Cultural Commodities

The Root. 2020. The Root 100: The most influential African Americans in 2020. Available at https://interactives.theroot.com/root-100-2020/

Tinsley, J. 2022. LeBron James redefined player empowerment- but not the way you think. ANDSCAPE. Available at https://andscape.com/features/lebron-james-redefined-player-empowerment-but-not-the-way-you-think/

Tinsley, J. 2023. How LeBron James is smashing stereotypes around black fatherhood. Available at https://andscape.com/features/how-lebron-james-is-smashing-stereotypes-around-black-fatherhood-fathers-day/

Van der Veken, K., Lauwerier, E. and Willems, S.J., 2020. How community sport programs may improve the health of vulnerable population groups: a program theory. International journal for equity in health19, pp.1-12.

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Zhigang, W., Kai, G., Chao, W., Hongyan, D., Lei, Z. and Zhao, X., 2022. How can social needs impact on meaningful sports consumption? Frontiers in Psychology13, p.4

Zhou, F., Mou, J., Su, Q. and Wu, Y.C.J., 2020. How does consumers’ Perception of Sports Stars’ Personal Brand Promote Consumers’ brand love? A mediation model of global brand equity. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services54

January 24, 2024
January 24, 2024

Greenwashing Concept D.I.E. Analysis


Greenwashing is the practice by companies, and government institutions try to cover up their poor environmental records with ambitious public schemes towards environmental concern (Acaroglu, 2019). For instance, there is prevalence in brands using the words such as sustainability, vegan, green, or even eco-friendly as a marketing strategy without accountability for their actions or deep understanding of the meaning of the words. It has led to inflated prices on the product despite less involvement in plastic packaging, making the environmental lifestyle highly costly and inaccessible.

H & M is a fast-fashion brand dealing with clothing retail. It is based in Stockholm, Sweden, and is operating in over seventy-four countries. The accusations on the company are greenwashing by claiming its conscious collection label to be sustainable (Petter, 2020).  According to the Norwegian Consumer Authority, “Consumers are being given the impression that these products are more ‘sustainable’ than they are.” Markedly, H&M has not furnished precise information on why the clothing line is labeled conscious and is more sustainable than other products they are selling, thus just creating an impression.

Greenwashing Concept D.I.E. Analysis

Greenwashing Concept D.I.E. Analysis

Despite fast fashion being rendered a hazard to the environment, H &M launched plans to make clothes from Circulose, a sustainable fabric made up of recycled clothing and fashion waste (Hitti, 2019). However, the move was another attempt at greenwashing.  The fast-fashion business model has proven to be unsustainable despite all the modifications the business aims at achieving. The move aims at covering up all the claims laid on the company’s greenwashing efforts.

Some attempts at greenwashing may fail, while other schemes are challenging to identify on the greenwashing scale. Advertising regulators do not have a universally accepted definition of terms used in the description, such as sustainability. H & M is exploiting the vagueness of green terminology to create an image of an environmentally conscious brand hence sell more clothing (Petter, 2020). For instance, the information on the collection was general. It did not specify the actual environmental benefit of each garment, such as the amount of recycled material on each garment, with fast fashion being under immense scrutiny due to the amount of clothing pollution ending up on landfills.

Greenwashing Concept D.I.E. Analysis

H & M has shown a lack of transparency. The company claims to be the most transparent brand raising many questions on the well-being of its employees over the wealth of its shareholders (Hitti, 2019). Additionally, engagement of ethics across the supply chain, products, and employment practices. The company should be more transparent on its journey to sustainability and not just proclaiming sustainability without evidence.

Sustainable fashion should be widely accessible, but the fast-fashion model will never achieve the aim of eliminating pollution. Notably, greenwashing is facing severe criticism, and even in some circumstances, companies are facing litigation. According to Acaroglu (2019), it is good to appraise green products manufactured by pollution agents, baffling terms such as sustainable and eco-friendly to avoid being a culprit of the vice.

Similarly, fake third party endorsement that seems genuine and lack of scientific evidence to back up company claims (Gatti, Seele & Rademacher, 2019). Other ways in which one can quickly determine greenwashing are via suggestive pictures, irrelevant packages, and deceptive packaging such as the use of green-colored boxes for harmful products. Online tools such as Project Cece, Ethical Made Easy, and STAIY check the sustainability, eco-friendly and green credentials.

Greenwashing Concept D.I.E. Analysis


Greenwashing, as shown by corporations investing heavily in advertisements claiming the company’s products are green rather than implementing sustainable business practices (Ferrer, 2020). Companies should be held accountable for their transparency on their journey towards sustainability. The business should instead engage in green marketing, which selling based on legitimate environmental concerns.


Acaroglu, L. (2019). What is Greenwashing? How to Spot It and Stop it. Medium. Retrieved 24 September 2020, from https://medium.com/disruptive-design/what-is-greenwashing-how-to-spot-it-and-stop-it

  1. Posting of the information took place in 2019; as such, it is current for research purposes, and the link is fully functional.
  2. The information relates to greenwashing as a concept as well as how to spot and eradicate. The audience is multidimensional and mainly used for informative purposes. The data is of intermediate level as such, ideal for the paper. I am comfortable using this information on a research paper.
  3. The author is Leyla Acaroglu. The website shows her credentials in the field of environment. She is a UNEP champion of the earth as well as a sustainability provocateur. Notably, the source offers her LinkedIn profile.
  4. The information comes from the Medium.com website. Not sure if the review of the article has occurred. The paper does not have grammatical errors and free from bias. Similarly, the information is easily verifiable in another source.
  5. The sole purpose of the information is to inform and educate. It can be proven by how factual the data is and impartial.

Score: 08/10

Greenwashing Concept D.I.E. Analysis

Ferrer, M. (2020). What is greenwashing, and why is it a problem? | Living. Retrieved 24 September 2020, from https://www.euronews.com/living/2020/09/09/what-is-greenwashing-and-why-is-it-a-problem.

  1. Posting of the information took place in 2020; it is current for research purposes, and the link is fully functional.
  2. The information relates to greenwashing as a concept and how it is a problem in society. The audience is multidimensional and mainly used for informative purposes. The data is of intermediate level as such, ideal for the paper. I am comfortable using this information on a research paper.
  3. The author is Marthe de Ferrer. Her credentials are in the field of the environment. She is a Euro news producer and a journalist at BBC. Notably, the source shares her social media handles.
  4. The information comes from the euronews.com website. The article was reviewed and updated on 09 September 2020. The paper does not have grammatical errors and free from bias. Similarly, the information is easily verifiable in another source.
  5. The sole purpose of the information is to inform and educate. It can be proven by how factual the data is and impartial.

Score: 07/10

Greenwashing Concept D.I.E. Analysis

Gatti, L., Seele, P., & Rademacher, L. (2019). Grey zone in – greenwash out. A review of greenwashing research and implications for the voluntary-mandatory transition of CSR. International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility4(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40991-019-0044-9

  1. Posting of the information took place in 2019. As such, it is current for research purposes, and the link is fully functional.
  2. The information relates to greenwashing research and its role in corporate social responsibility. The audience is mainly scholars, as the information is for educational purposes. The data is of intermediate level to advanced level; thus, it is ideal for the paper. I am comfortable using this information on a research paper as it is a peer-reviewed article.
  3. The corresponding author is Lucia Gatti, assisted by Peter Seele, who works at the Ethics and Communication Law Centre at the Universita Della Svizzera Italiana Lugano, Switzerland. Similarly, Lars Rademacher works at the University of Applied Sciences Darmstadt under communication and media.
  4. The information comes from an International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility. The review of the article has occurred since it is a scholarly article. The paper does not have grammatical errors and free from bias. Similarly, the information is easily verifiable in another source.
  5. The sole purpose of the information is to inform and educate. It can be proven by how factual the data is and impartial.

Greenwashing Concept D.I.E. Analysis

Score: 10/10

Hitti, N. (2019). H&M called out for “greenwashing” in its Conscious fashion collection. Dezeen. Retrieved 24 September 2020, from https://www.dezeen.com/2019/08/02/hm-norway-greenwashing-conscious-fashion-collection-news/.

  1. Posting of the information took place in 2019; as such, it is current for research purposes, and the link is fully functional.
  2. The information relates to greenwashing as a concept regarding the H&M Retail Company. The audience is the general public and is mainly for informative purposes. The data is of intermediate level as such ideal for the paper. I am comfortable using this information on a research paper.
  3. The author is Natashah Hitti. The website shows her credentials as a design and technology reporter at the Dezeen since 2019. She was previously an editorial assistant. Her email, as well as other social media handles, are inclusive of personal information.
  4. The information comes from Dezeen.com website. The article has been reviewed by the editorial group as is fact-checking protocol. The paper does not have grammatical errors and free from bias. Similarly, the information is easily verifiable in another source.
  5. The information aims to inform. The author makes her intentions clear and from an objective point of view.

Score: 08/10

Greenwashing Concept D.I.E. Analysis

Petter, O. (2020). H&M is accused of ‘greenwashing’ over plans to make clothes from sustainable fabric. Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 24 September 2020, from https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/fashion/hm-greenwashing-sustainable-circulose-venetia-falconer-manna-a9312566.html.

  1. Posting of the information took place in 2020. As such, it is current for research purposes, and the link is fully functional.
  2. The information relates to greenwashing as a concept as well as H&M Retail Company. The audience is the general public and is mainly for informative purposes. The data is of intermediate level as such ideal for the paper. I am comfortable using this information on a research paper.
  3. The author is Olivia Petter. The website shows her credentials as a journalist for the Independent newspaper on matters fashion and lifestyle. Her email, as well as other social media handles, are inclusive of personal information.
  4. The information comes from the Independent.co.uk website. The article has been reviewed by the editorial group as is fact-checking protocol. The paper does not have grammatical errors and free from bias. Similarly, the information is easily verifiable in another source.
  5. The information aims to inform. The author makes her intentions clear and from an objective point of view.

Score: 09/10


January 24, 2024
January 24, 2024

House of Burgesses Legislative Assembly

Cause and Outcome of the Event

The inaugural legislative conference in the House of Burgesses was inspired by the provisions of the Magna Carta, which was established by King John of England in 1215 (Gottlieb, 2018). Magna Carta is referred to as the great charter which had provisions for individual’s rights and guiding principles on subjection to the law. Jamestown, Virginia, was the host of the assembly in 1619, the first English settlement in America. It was led by governor George Yeardley who abolished martial law in favor of a legislative assembly as was voted by the Virginia Company. The proceedings were partly influenced by the fact that Britain was a restricted monarchy whereby the authority of the ruler is checked by other institutions that were constitutionally sanctioned, such as the representative assembly.

The model of the House of Burgesses resembled the British parliament. English landowners had reiterated convening with their leaders for deliberation in local matters, with the meeting held at least annually with the appointed governor. Major discussion issues were the determination of local laws and local taxation (Gottlieb, 2018). Burgesses constituted elected representatives from the eleven settlements, thus creating twenty-two slots with every male adult have the chance to vote. The establishment of the House of Burgesses set precedence with each new English colony demanding its legislature, thus being paramount in colonial development.

House of Burgesses Legislative Assembly

House of Burgesses Legislative Assembly

The first law to be passed in the House of Burgesses was the law on the pricing of tobacco (Gottlieb, 2018). Tobacco farming is the main economic activity. Other laws to be passed included the prohibition of gambling, idleness, and drunkenness. There was a principle that ensured observance of the Sabbath was mandatory. All laws passed had to be voted by the Virginia Company.

Impact of the event on the Development of American Civilization

The House of Burgesses had a big role in the development of American Civilization. It successfully defended the rights of colonists while England was increasing her regulations before the revolutionary war. The success included fighting against the Stamp Act and the closure of the Boston Harbor hence giving voice to colonies (Gottlieb, 2018). It also led to the establishment of the House of Delegates in the aftermath of the 1776 declaration for the independence of Virginia.

House of Burgesses Legislative Assembly

Notably, the House of Burgesses is the foundation of the American Government. For instance, the proliferation of democracy across the colony declared independence and subsequent smooth transition into a democratic republic. The House was a platform for America to practice democracy for over a century before independence; thus, it is accredited for its role in America’s strong democracy (Gottlieb, 2018). The House initiated Virginia Conferences, which led to the establishment of the Virginia Constitution. It also formed a continental assembly that led to the adoption of the American constitution. Markedly, the constitution drafted in the early days of independent America has longer than any other constitution in history.

Trade and taxation are common concepts in modern American society but were formally introduced under the mercantilism system of colonial economies. England tried to regulate trade and maintenance of the right to tax but found it difficult to control. The House asserted its sole authority to tax Virginians in the 1760s, which promoted gradual economic growth and stability that is currently witnessed (Gottlieb, 2018).  England’s economic, religious and democratic suppression inspired the emergence of famous Burgesses such as George Washington, Patrick Henry, and Thomas Jefferson, who inspired the American Revolution and established the articles of Confederation and declaration of independence. apa.


Gottlieb, M. S. (2018). House of Burgesses. Encyclopedia Virginia.

January 24, 2024
January 24, 2024

Twentieth-Century Europe

A Collection of separate Events

World war one broke out in the fourteenth year of the century it was also during this period that literature and art evolved. Cultural Revolution occurred along with birth control and the emancipation of women (Münkler, 2014). The Great War resulted from an escalation of conflicts between Western and Central Europe, which was greatly influenced by Germany. The rise of dictatorship in the early decades, especially in Italy, Germany, Portugal, along with U.S.S.R and Spain, was a significant event in the century.

Twentieth-Century Europe

The Russian revolution obtained inspiration from the fall of the monarchy, and the revolutionary socialist party inspired the growth of communism. It sparked a wave of socialism across Europe that anchored on cooperatives and consciousness of the welfare of the society, unlike capitalism. World war two broke out between 1939 and 1945. From a European perspective, Germany, France, Italy, and Great Britain were the main actors (Münkler, 2014). It led to the expansion of the U.S.S.R’s power to Eastern European countries. The holocaust occurred during this phase and featured the genocide of European Jews. Globalization is an aftermath of the war, which was inspired by global trade primarily.

Twentieth-Century Europe

The nuclear age and the cold war in Europe obtained inspiration from the increased tension between allies at the end of world war two. The launching of space exploration occurred in 1962 under the European Space Research Organization (Münkler, 2014). The development of technology during the century resulted in scientific discoveries and advancements such as electricity, radio, and television, computers along with telephony and telegraphy. Additionally, the discovery of bioengineering, subatomic physics, jet engines along with oil, and petrochemicals occurred during this period.

Lessons from Major Events of Twentieth-Century Europe

The demise of fascism and the collapse of communism is a great lesson for many nations that would want to adopt such philosophies. The importance of democracy cannot be understated. The promotion of the fight for human rights is a valuable lesson. For instance, funding international organizations that seek to promote peace is one of the successes of the past decade despite the holocaust events (Guerisoli, 2016). The development of technology aims at solving human problems. Lifesaving drugs and medical procedures have contributed to healthy living.

Twentieth-Century Europe

The adoption of conflict resolution techniques and the promotion of institutions handling such matters is a priority. Initiatives such as the Geneva Convention have helped prevent universal conflicts to scales witnessed during the world war periods (Guerisoli, 2016). Change is inevitable; the evolution of technology has sparked a shift in how people conduct business coupled with globalization leaving people with no choice.

Our Understanding of the World in the Twenty-first Century based on Lessons of the Previous Century

Recent developments in international relations such as Brexit can be viewed based on similar events of European twentieth-century renaissance. Ideologies such as multiculturalism are reminding us to be mindful of language as specific phrases used in the past fuel vices such as racism in the society (Guerisoli, 2016). Patriotism is a value that has cost so much value in the past for individuals to ignore and overlook. Artificial intelligence (AI) is the protégé of technology and has much potential than we can currently foresee as it was with the launching of past century inventions.

Twentieth-Century Europe

For instance, self-driving vehicles envisioned to prevent road accidents, which have mainly contributed to human mistakes. Such events tune our perspectives to view technology as a solution and not a threat. Lessons of the past century have made it easier to understand the war between AI and psychology, democracy, and voting as well as the value of data along with algorithms and personal finance (Guerisoli, 2016). Similarly, instead of governments offering incentives to the unemployed, it should subsidize essential universal services. It is a communist ideology that is not inspired by revolt. apa.


Guerisoli, Emmanuel. 2016. “20Th Century European Lessons For A 21St Century”. Public Seminar. https://publicseminar.org/2016/07/20th-century-european-lessons-for-a-21st-century/.

Münkler, Herfried. 2014. “Turning Points of the 20Th Century”. From the First World War to the present: Europe in the focus of history Deutschland. De. https://www.deutschland.de/en/topic/politics/germany-europe/turning-points-of-the-20th-century.

January 24, 2024
January 24, 2024

World Trade Organization & Trading


World Trade Organization (WTO) is the sole universal body that regulates the global economy through the establishment of universal trade laws and monitoring the implementation of trade accords. The agency also settles disputes and promotes the development agenda of developing countries in addition to balancing tariffs and ensuring fair economic competition (WTO n.p). The discussion paper will evaluate the validity of the WTO and its policies by identifying the challenges of the current system concerning building new trade environments. The article will also highlight proposed reforms and measures by experts to remedy the limitations.

The validity of WTO based on the Limitations of the Current System in Relations to Building New Trade Environments

The validity of the WTO is well evaluated based on how the institution is satisfying delegated responsibility. One of the main limitations is the failure to conduct negotiations on intellectual property rights and agricultural appropriations fortuitously. Lack of amicable talks has led to member states opting to plurilateral, bilateral and regional free trade accords (Hoekman, Bernard & Petros 49). Another challenge is the weakening of the dispute settlement function. WTO multilateral trading system has weakened due to disagreements that have led to member states adopting bilateral agreements (Ciuriak n.p). For example, the WTO has failed in its arbitration of the business conflict between China and the United States. Both states have imposed tariff policies on each other. The US alleges China has been practicing unfair trade as well as intellectual property theft. According to Swanson (n.p), in 2017, WTO allowed China to impose tariffs on American products to recoup the duties imposed by the US without following the trade rules enacted by WTO.

World Trade Organization & Trading

World Trade Organization & Trading

The decision led to the current US Administration breaching the global body’s rules to place tariffs on Chinese products worth three hundred and sixty billion US dollars. Such a situation shows the lack of faith by the US government in the WTO. Accusations on China entails offering subsidies to its industries that produce inexpensive products that positioned their opponents out of business. The appellate body also lacks enough quorum to make decisions on appeals on trade disputes after the expiry of two-judge terms with only one active judge leaving many trade disputes without the final verdict (Wagner 79). It is as a result of the US blocking new appointments of judges to the appellate body to weaken it. The administration has also undermined WTO by sidestepping the WTO system and enforcing unilateral actions.

Failure to uphold the Doha development agenda has proven a challenge to the WTO in efforts to promote a new trade environment. The plan aimed at promoting developing countries by developing universal agricultural trade. Such a move would protect emerging nations that depend on agricultural export from the competition of developed countries that offer a subsidy for agricultural export. The negotiations process for the agenda failed in 2008 due to disagreements on the grants as WTO proposed developing countries to raise tariffs to protect farmers (Amadeo n.p). Farmers and labor groups alleged that the WTO overemphasized on corporate interest than their affairs.

Proposed Reforms and Measures by Experts to remedy Limitations mentioned above

Experts Criticism

Critics have observed that WTO rules override national sovereignty as was the case with the US, and as such, it would impede efforts towards labor and environmental protection. The ruling against the genetically modified products where the European Union had appealed to put restrictions on importation of the said products in the protection of the general public (Swanson n.p). Environmentalists claim that such a move overlooked the health and safety of consumers and also the democratic rights of individual member states to protect their citizens. Other issues relate to what WTO terms as discriminatory environmental labelling.

World Trade Organization & Trading

Another significant issue relates to the impacts of import competition on labor dimensions. The Economic Policy Institute of US projected that China’s entry into the WTO resulted in the disappearance of approximately more than three million opportunities in the US. It was as a result of China’s much cheaper imports leading to downsizing of locally competing firms (Research n.p). Such claims are backed up by US labor unions accusations of WTO being unable to protect wages by addressing the labor standards.

Martin Khor, a former executive director representing developing countries, affirms that the WTO is partisan in its oversight of a universal economy through the systemic bias that harms developing countries that lack negotiating powers (Wagner 72). He elaborated that rich countries have the financial strength to promote high quotas and import duties on privileged products hindering imports from developing countries.  Additionally, the use of non-tariff barriers, for instance, the anti-dumping permitted contrary to developing countries. Similarly, he points the high level of agricultural protectionism in developed countries while the developing are coerced into opening their markets, therefore, calling for the abolishment of the body.

World Trade Organization & Trading

Proposed Reforms

Several reforms have been proposed by experts and member states to improve the functionality of the WTO. Matters suggested ranges from negotiation, functionality and the restructuring of differential along with special treatment (Hoekman, Bernard & Petros 34). These reforms have been pushed by political pressures on the body to dispense its mandate effectively. Criticism of judicial overplays where the rulings of the WTO override the sovereignty of associate countries.

Proposed reforms to the dispute settlement system include member states to evaluate suggestions that would be sufficient to alleviate their concerns. Negotiation specialists have suggested that a review of the laws of the universal trading system to accommodate changes since the inception of the body (Board n.p). The system should be able to adapt to all types of economic policies from the market economies to the capitalistic economies. Evaluation of the decision-making framework is also part of the proposal. Similarly, the failure by countries to comply with WTO notification stipulation is an issue of concern. For instance, government subsidy programs. Experts have recommended the implementation of penalties for non-compliance.

World Trade Organization & Trading

Consideration of trade liberalization is also in the proposed reforms. The proposed improvements included a detailed classification and description regarding the composition of a first world and a middle economy at the WTO to prevent affiliate countries from self-designating their status (Ciuriak n.p). Notably, more than nine of the G20 nations have claimed developing state status at the WTO. Abolishment of the corporate globalization model and its underlying policies as it does not exclusively promote the balancing of free trade and protectionism as it purports. Still, it represents the interest of large multinationals with increased corporate profits and stalled wages. Notably, matters of quotas and tariff wars have been rampant in the recent past, along with increased government subsidy on state-owned organizations. According to Schneider-Petsinger (n.p), there is a proposal that WTO should be empowered to sanction countervailing duties to offset the subsidy subsidies granted.


The global economy is undergoing a lot of changes. With advanced technological advancements, there is increased competition between the developed economies on who is to become the leading economic power. Such commercial rivalry needs to be regulated, and the WTO is the only organization that has the mandate to execute such function (McBride, James & Andrew n.p). With the increased need for reforms inspired by the ministerial conference held in Buenos Aires in 2017 along with US retaliation to both China and WTO, the expectation is to have a raft of changes that will improve the efficiency and functionality of WTO. MLA.

January 24, 2024
January 24, 2024

Unemployment Case Analysis


Macroeconomics is concerned with behavioral, performance, and structural aspects of an economy. Fundamental components include consumption, unemployment, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), inflation, national income, international trade, among other elements. Herein, the developed case analysis will outline the selected macroeconomic situation from a reliable news article. The case analysis will be guided by both macroeconomic concepts and theories and will also highlight the impacts of the analyzed issue to the industry outlined by the paper. It will conclude by furnishing a possible recommendation to the analyzed issue from an economic point of view.

Unemployment Case Analysis

Description of the Unemployment Situation in the US in 2020

Unemployment is a situation whereby an individual whose services are utilizable and is within the labor age is not able to find a job despite actively searching for employment. The status is measured by an indicator known as the unemployment rate. The index can be defined as the percentage of the unemployed workforce out of the total labor pool. The estimate of unemployment in the United States has been relatively stable, ranging from three-point six percent in January to four point four percent in March. However, after the Covid-19 outbreak, it has risen remarkably to fourteen point seven percent in April. However, it has slightly dropped to thirteen point three percent in May (Rushe, 2020). The month of April and May has been characterized by downsizing and rampant layoffs by companies their bid to remain afloat.

Unemployment Case Analysis

The drop in the unemployment rate ensues from economic reopening that was closed in some parts of March and the whole month of April. It is attributed to measures to smother the effects of the Coronavirus pandemic. As per the latest Bureau of Labor Statistics, in terms of population numbers for the unemployment changes between April and May, the one point four percentage decline represented two million and one hundred thousand persons. Notably, the thirteen point three unemployment rate for May represented twenty-one million individuals. Markedly, the number of unemployed people has increased by fifteen million and two hundred thousand individuals since February this year. The highest unemployment rate ever recorded in the US was twenty-five percent during the considerable depression period.

Conceptual and Theoretical analysis of the situation

According to the classical unemployment theory, unemployment results when wages are unsustainable for employers to be willing to recruit more personnel. In the case scenario, the leading cause of unemployment is the poor performance of business due to the Covid-19 outbreak and economic closure by the government to contain the virus. It has resulted in two types of unemployment, namely cyclical and structural unemployment. Demand and supply forces are the main determinants of cyclical unemployment. Conversely, structural unemployment has been caused by government action through economic closure. Notably, both the cyclical and structural unemployment in the current state of affairs is involuntary as people are willing to work at the existing wage but are still unemployed.

Unemployment Case Analysis

Involuntary unemployment and the layoffs and downsizing witnessed can be elaborated theoretically through the implicit contract theory. It holds the assumption that labor agreements make it challenging for employers to reduce wages and instead opt for layoffs and downsizing. It is explained by the behavioral factors of both parties to the contract with the personnel being risk-averse while the employers being risk neutrals the possibility of layoff becomes the feasible alternative. The economic effects of the Coronavirus pandemic on employment can be mirrored on the social repercussions of the great depression.

Description of the Impacts of the Analyzed Issue to the leisure and the hospitality Industry

The most affected industry in the US by the analyzed issue is the leisure and the hospitality industry. For instance, since the outbreak, hotels have lost more than thirty-six billion US dollars in room revenue (Ahla, 2020). Unemployment in April recorded job losses for seven million and seven hundred thousand leisure jobs (Casselman et al., 2020). It is estimated that seventy percent of the immediate hotel personnel were furloughed or retrenched. Distinctive hotels and leading operators in the industry are projecting occupancy below twenty percent. Revenue losses for the year are expected to be at fifty-seven point five percent. According to Carrns et al., (2020), the industry is hoping to retain and gain back its personnel through the implementation of the rehiring bonanza along with the paycheck protection program with about one million and four hundred thousand jobs regained in May.

Unemployment Case Analysis

 Recommendations to remedy the issue from an Economic Point of View

Fiscal Policy

Some fiscal policies are critical such as tax deferral measures for large companies except those dealing with essential service to defer payment of tax to the fiscal year 2021 (Blanchard, 2020). Additionally, payroll tax relief and wage subsidies are also recommended because the companies need support to service the wage bill of their workforce. Similarly, direct subsidies by the government in efforts aimed at helping organizations maintain their employees. The creation of temporary part-time employment opportunities in the public sector will also help reduce the high unemployment rate. Cash flow support to businesses and affected industries, especially the manufacturing industry.

As for the unemployed individuals, the government should offer unemployment grants as well as promote structure for unemployment insurance benefits to sustain their consumption and expenditure (USA Labor, 2020). Other policy issues include exemption from social security contributions as well as forbearance, such as the provision of utility services to households in arrears and or at a discounted rate. The beneficiaries should include low-income earners.

Unemployment Case Analysis

Monetary Policy

Monetary and macro-financial policies should entail temporary suspension of all loans for a specified time, preferably three months period with the deferment of installments and interest without penalties to allow businesses to cushion them against the adverse economic effects (IMF, 2020). Other monetary policies include lower reserve requirements on financial institutions lending to Small and Medium Enterprises.

The Federal Reserve System should ensure that the interbank market is active and that it easily meets its liquidity needs as it indirectly affects the liquidity in the economy. Implementation of the repurchase agreement of government bonds by the Federal Reserve System for more than three months will provide necessary liquidity. Efforts to protect the capital market are proposed with the review of eligibility criteria for the guarantee for open market operations such as securities promulgated by non-bank institutions.

Unemployment Case Analysis


Despite the decline in the rate of unemployment in May, the economy is still expected to close the year at a ten percent unemployment rate. Such a trend can be attributed to the revival being buffered by government stimulus. Discharge of the economic stimulus such as the paycheck protection program implemented in the leisure and hospitality industry would result in readjustment to the initial unemployment rate. Therefore, the government must enact sufficient fiscal, monetary, and macro-financial policies to deal with the high unemployment rate resulting from the Covid-19 outbreak. apa.


Ahla. (2020). COVID-19’S IMPACT ON THE HOTEL INDUSTRY | AHLA. Retrieved 24 June 2020, from https://www.ahla.com/covid-19s-impact-hotel-industry

Blanchard, O. (2020). The three ways fiscal policy can be used to fight COVID-19 and the coronavirus recession – Equitable Growth. Retrieved 24 June 2020, from https://equitablegrowth.org/the-three-ways-fiscal-policy-can-be-used-to-fight-covid-19-and-the-coronavirus-recession/

Carrns, A., Phillips, M., Sullivan, P., & Glueck, K. (2020). Unexpected Drop in US Unemployment Helps Markets Rally. Retrieved 24 June 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/05/business/jobs-report-stock-market-coronavirus.html

Casselman, B., Cohen, P., Conger, K., & Haberman, M. (2020). US Jobless Claims Pass 40 Million: Live Business Updates. Retrieved 24 June 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/28/business/unemployment-stock-market-coronavirus.html

IMF. (2020). Policy Responses to COVID19. Retrieved 24 June 2020, from https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responses-to-COVID-19

Rushe, D. (2020). US unemployment declines to 13.3% as the economy restores 2.5m jobs in May. Retrieved 24 June 2020, from https://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/jun/05/us-unemployment-may-great-depression-job-loss

USA Labor. (2020). US Department of Labor Announces New Guidance on Unemployment Insurance Flexibilities during COVID-19 Outbreak | US Department of Labor. Retrieved 24 June 2020, from https://www.dol.gov/newsroom/releases/eta/eta20200312-0


January 24, 2024
January 24, 2024

Leader within the Organization


Leadership entails the process of motivating, influencing, and enabling colleagues to contribute towards the success and efficiency of the organization. It is best viewed as more of a role rather than a position assigned to an individual.  In company solutions and opportunities are offered at all levels of the hierarchy of authority. Leadership is an integral part of an organization as it helps identify and promote positive behaviors and develops a positive work culture. It is also entrusted with motivating employees and evaluating employee response to the proposed organization’s change. Herein, the paper will assess the leadership of Lieutenant Waymando Brown and Chief Warrant Officer Robert Holden by using leadership theories as to the basis. It will further analyze personal strengths and areas of development relating to leadership. The paper will conclude on a personal opinion of leadership and its importance in the organization.

Lieutenant Waymando Brown Port Security Unit 308

Background Information

Lieutenant Waymando was awarded the Captain John G Witherspoon Inspirational leadership award in 2018. He serves in the Coast Guard Reserve unit 308 in Kiln, Mississippi, as a shore-side division security officer (Ratliff, 2018). In the article, his leadership qualities were best illustrated during the deadly hurricane Maria that swept Puerto Rico in 2017. Officer Brown led his team during the challenging operations during the storm. Markedly, the Coast Guard Reserve unit is a contingency based workforce that is trained locally and deployed globally to support disaster response and recovery.

Leader within the Organization

Leader within the Organization

Leadership Qualities and Leadership Styles

Officer Brown has displayed a lot of leadership traits. He is always quoted to put his crew first being exemplary by putting people in positions he would only want to be put on and very focused on the mission. Such traits blend well with the qualities that are discussed by the trait theory of leadership. As per the method, these traits are inherent and make individuals better leaders. His self-drive best illustrates his exemplary leadership to being operational in the boat and leading the charge when in the field with the crew (Ratliff, 2018). Markedly, behavioral theories of leadership believe that great leaders are made and, as such, focuses on the action of leaders, which he has performed excellently. He says that his team knows that he is not going to ask them to do something that he cannot do.

Similarly, he has excellent communication skills and very approachable as elaborated on how well he interacts with his team members. They find it easy to engage him in personal matters, disturbing them. Transformational or relationship theories can analyze this. The approach focuses on connection formed between leaders and followers. The fact that team members are willing to discuss their matters with Brown as their team leaders show how good his relationship skills and team leadership is (Ratliff, 2018). The relationship theory also suggests that leaders with such a style have high moral and ethical values and know-how to motivate and inspire people by helping team members to see the importance of the task at hand.

Leader within the Organization

Based on situational circumstances, the hurricane Maria that swept Puerto Rico was deadly and was classified as category five hurricane and was the worst natural disaster to have ever hit Puerto Rico and its neighboring islands (Padgett, 2017). The fatality was estimated at around ninety-one billion US dollars, to show how severe the damage was. Evaluation of Brown’s leadership based on situational theories is quite impressive. Firstly, because it the leading factor in consideration to be awarded the captain John G Witherspoon Inspirational leadership award. Situational theories suggest that leaders should choose the best course of action based on a situational variable. Therefore, different styles of leadership may be appropriate for specific types of decision making.

The catastrophe resulted in structural damage, flooding, communication outage and landfalls, lack of water fresh running water along with widespread power outage being significant considerations in the rescue mission (Padgett, 2017). Similarly, reducing the loss of life through search and rescue plans, as well as the preparations for the storm, were well executed the protection of the rescue equipment from the storm path exceptionally.

Transformational leadership perceives leaders as agents of change. It entails creating, communicating, and structuring a shared vision for the institution. Such a leadership style is evident in Brown; for instance, he is at the forefront taking a lead of operations by communicating and illustrating how he likes things being done (Ratliff, 2018). Additionally, he portrays his commitment to crew members by the desire to help them with their issues affecting them. The fact that Brown does not sit back and issue orders demonstrates his commitment towards the vision.

Leader within the Organization

Charisma is an essential trait for an effective leader and also an integral component of transformational leadership (McShane & Von Glinow, 2018). It is a personal trait that claims reverence from followers and colleagues. It is embedded in communication and improves a leader’s motivational ability. In the context, it is hard to identify Brown’s charisma due to the limited information about the matter. The importance of transformational leadership is that it channels more commitment from subordinates and also improves employee satisfaction.

Notably, Brown has displayed both task aligned and people aligned leadership. Task aligned leadership establishes well-defined processes, plans work events, sets objectives and deadlines, assign work, and delegate responsibilities (Landis, Hill & Harvey, 2014). Conversely, people aligned direction shows empathy to colleagues and subordinates, listens to employees as well as appreciating employees and considering their needs. People-oriented leadership can be examined further into servant leadership. Such leaders are described as ethical, humble, and empathetic, and they assist people in need fulfillment and individual evolution and progression. Such traits are observable in Brown’s leadership because his leadership style does not elicit superior status, nor does it draw attention to himself but instead leads through example.

Leader within the Organization

Theoretical Analysis

The exemplary leadership characteristics described above are linked to the path-goal leadership concept. It proposes that leaders ought to be servant leaders at all times. It applies the contingency managerial approach and utilizes the best plan depending on the prevailing circumstances (Landis, Hill & Harvey, 2014). It is also promoted due to the diverse nature of subordinate, relationship factors in a chain of command as well as work environment as influenced by organizational behavior. The leadership style is aimed at striking a balance between employee satisfaction and expectations with the achievement of set goals. It sheds light on the connection between leadership and the expectancy theory of motivation as well as rational decision making.

The contingency approach evaluates a leader’s effectiveness based on the individual’s natural leadership style matches the prevailing situation (McShane & Von Glinow, 2018). Brown is an active leader, as his leadership style is adaptable to circumstances. The theory, however, acknowledges that the best leadership style corresponds to situational control of the leader, which is influenced by the design of the tasks, work relationship, and position power. Notably, most leaders tend to choose the leadership style that is consistent with their values and personality. Leaders of high agreeableness, such as Brown, prefer a supportive leadership style to accommodate their benevolent values.

Leader within the Organization

Based on an implicit leadership perspective, subordinates’ perceptions affect a leader’s effectiveness.  It illustrates why officer brown much relies on exemplary leadership to influence the opinion of his assistants on the task structure, his vision for the attainment of predetermined goals, and his overall direction (Landis, Hill & Harvey, 2014). It is because, through demonstration, leaders can show practical ways of dealing with problems and create a positive impression of their leadership skills on their junior employees. However, the theory also notes that leadership perspective is affected by leader prototypes, which are preconceived beliefs about the traits and behaviors. Such believes nurtured by socialization in the society and at the family level, determining subordinates’ expectations and acceptance of an effective leader.

The trait theory is also an excellent approach to evaluate whether Officer Brown is an effective leader. It holds that effective leaders possess several common personality traits that make them successful (McShane & Von Glinow, 2018). Those attributes range from self-drive, personality, motivation, cognitive and emotional intelligence, integrity, and self-concept (Wilcox, 2016). For this paper, we will evaluate self-concept and emotional intelligence. The attribute entails a strong sense of self-belief, self-awareness, and self-evaluation of their leadership skills and ability to achieve predetermined goals.

Leader within the Organization

Brown portrays a high level of self-concept. He acknowledges his leadership strengths, which are being operational, taking charge of events, and possessing excellent communication skills. It shows that for a leader to be effective, he or she has to view self-awareness as a great asset. Similarly, his emotional intelligence is impressive. He understands that through self-awareness, he can use his personal experiences in offering help to subordinates undergoing similar life and family challenges to what he has previously undergone.

Chief Warrant Officer Robert Holden   

Background Information

Robert Holden previously served as a Chief Petty Officer at Air Station Detroit. He got promoted to the level of a Chief Warrant Officer after an exceptional performance in the previous position. His duties included managing a unit of search and rescue mission, supporting tier one mission requests for presidential security (Saylor, 2017). Additional functions included performing level one natural disaster management and recovery, where he spearheaded two such events along with the performance of proficiency deployments that supported updates on the winter hard water season (Surace, 2019). In all the duties and functions he coordinated, he maintained a perfect dispatch rate, which is a preparedness measurement.  Such achievements led to him being honored with the Master Chief Angela M. McShane inspirational leadership award in 2017 for those in active duty.

Leader within the Organization

Leadership Qualities

Holden has a significant level of empathy and commitment to community values. For instance, championing the shop, a hero event that partnered with the local department store to provide gift cards to underserved children in the community, shows his human capacity. The situation mentioned above illuminates his creativity in solving problems for the society he lives in and the neighborhood in general as a servant leader one should show empathy and commitment to the core values of honor, respect and devotion to duty (Saylor, 2017). For him, effective leaders should have character and responsibility. They face obstacles with grace and conviction.

He is a very dedicated employee and has put in efforts to achieve his goals. His dedication is best illustrated by his willingness to mentor subordinates as well as maintaining a perfect dispatch rate for all deployments as a readiness measure. Similarly, Holden is dedicated to servant leadership by helping community efforts in the betterment of the living standards of the underserved children as well as his willingness to make sacrifices for his colleagues. He is also a humble leader who prides himself in collective success rather than individual accomplishments and highly values honor and respect for others.

Leader within the Organization

Leadership Styles

Styles of leadership changes according to different tasks, situations, and environment upon which a leader makes decisions. Holden has much-portrayed servant leadership, and for him, it is his most valuable leadership style. He is on record to be on a supervisory role of about seventy volunteers who originated from the local community and the surrounding Coast Guard Units in undertaking renovation duties for a Coast Guard Members home. The colleague suffered an assault that left him permanently disabled. Such a move shows the level of dedication and commitment to community values and a high level of team spirit.

His love for the servant leadership style manifests in his personal life. He is much inspired by the lead consultant and Pastor John C. Maxwell, who notes that authentic leadership is for the prosperity of followers and not for the gain of the leader. He reckons that at the position of Chief Petty Officer, where everybody relied on his decisions and depended on him (Saylor, 2017). It is at that point he appreciated and was willing to make daily sacrifices for others to strive to improve everyone who works with him. He acquired the style from servant leaders who natured him during the several missions where they shared pearls of wisdom.

Servant leadership has several numbers of advantages. Firstly it encourages employee loyalty as the employees feel valued as they are engaged in decision making (Landis, Hill & Harvey, 2014). It also leads to high performance, as noted with the perfect dispatch rate maintained by Holden in all his proficiency deployments. Such a return is necessitated by the flexibility and freedom to learn offered to employees to explore and solve problems on their own. Similarly, the leadership style has led to the development of a more reliable and a more cohesive culture resulting from the trust and honesty diffused by the leader.

Leader within the Organization

Holden is also very supportive. His supportive leadership style can be vindicated by the high level of support he offers his subordinates. He is quoted to have dedicated himself to each individual’s plea, which shows a high level of empathy and commitment towards the wellbeing of the staff (Saylor, 2017). Supportive leaders are focused on identifying what changes and support are required to ensure the welfare of their team. They are also focused on giving the employees tools needed to produce results and do not give orders or employ micromanagement. Such a style creates room for a mentoring approach to support the employees.

Holden also applies a coaching leadership style for his junior staff. He acts as a mentor to both the junior and the senior team to ensure they achieve self-actualization. Coaching also entails the ability to inspire and empower while at the same time, accepting mistakes (McShane & Von Glinow, 2018). It creates an open dialogue with the subordinates to have a safe environment for learning, making mistakes, and growing. The leadership style has several benefits in that it empowers employees as well as creating a positive working environment (Landis, Hill & Harvey, 2014). It also reduces the level of employee turnover and is beneficial to an organization during a period of change. Additionally, it improves employee skillset from the high level of personal mentorship as well as knowledge of expectations.

Theoretical Analysis

Situational theories suggest that leaders choose the best course of action based on prevailing circumstances. The fact that Holden was willing to lead a team of seventy volunteers who originated from the local community and the surrounding Coast Guard Units in undertaking renovation duties for a Coast Guard Members home shows the quality of his leadership. The colleague suffered an assault that left him permanently disabled. However, based on the article, Holden’s leadership style is founded on servant leadership more than adopting different leadership styles based on the circumstances. That does not mean that his leadership style is not flexible. However, the theory holds that no one leadership style supersedes others.

Leader within the Organization

Trait theory postulates that effective leaders possess several common personality traits that make them successful. There are inborn leadership qualities such as confidence, excellent communication skills, calmness, integrity, and compassion, along with honesty and patience. Similarly, open-mindedness, courage, and insightfulness form part of a natural-born leader (Wilcox, 2016). Other leadership traits are obtained by training, coaching along with experience and include self-awareness and self-assessment, people skills, problem-solving, and business communication. Holden scores a successful leader based on trait theory analysis. Notably, other factors of consideration for the theory include intelligence, demographical and physiological attributes.

Behavioral theory focuses on actions and specific behaviors of leaders rather than their characteristics. It holds that effective leadership is a summation of many acquired skills, which include social skills, technical skills, and conceptual skills (McShane & Von Glinow, 2018). Holden holds excellent human skills to qualify him to be an effective leader, as depicted by the article through his superb rapport with subordinates, colleagues, and the community generally. Similarly, he is also outstanding in his conceptual skills based on the fact that he can come up with ideal solutions to problems affecting his ex-colleague and the underserving children in the community. His technical skills are indicated by the exceptional record of a perfect dispatch as a measurement of deployment readiness.

Personal Leadership Characteristics

From the leadership self-assessment questionnaire, I was able to evaluate my leadership skills to determine my leadership strengths and potential areas for growth and development.  The questions were open-ended and were ranked based on a scale of one to five points. The minimum point was one representing the likelihood of the leadership activity happening to be rarely true. In contrast, a range of five described the possibility of the action arising to be almost always right. The accumulated points reflected the position towards achieving leadership status. The highest possible score was two hundred and fifty points, while the lowest possible total score was fifty points. I scored a remarkable one hundred and ninety-nine points with the guide indicating a score of one hundred and seventy-five points and above is on the right path to attaining leadership status.

Leader within the Organization

Leadership Strengths

Leadership strengths are essential for improving creativity, desired recruitment policy, and promoting team engagement. From the questionnaire, my leadership strengths are linked with my attributes and skills, a clear understanding of the functions and tasks, strategic thinking, and executional excellence.

Personal Attributes

From my attributes, aspects such as emotional intelligence, influence, relationship building, personality, and self-concept formed part of core strengths. Similarly, self-drive, integrity, motivation, as well as cognitive knowledge, forms part of the advantages founded on personal attributes. Firstly, emotional intelligence entails an individual’s ability to identify and control their own emotions and feelings as well as those of other individuals. From the questionnaire, I scored five points on aspects dealing with excellent communication with colleagues, being honest, and just along with excellent listening skills.

Motivation is an essential factor in differentiating successful leaders from good leaders. Motivation relates to the practice of starting, managing, as well as maintaining objective oriented behavior (Gopalan et al., 2017). It entails social, biological, cognitive, and emotional aspects that initiate behavior. Motivating employees ensures that leaders gain employee respect and also creates employee loyalty. It also solidifies set expectations as well as shapes and encouraging dynamic, unique behaviors. Motivation transforms an organization’s goals into vision, along with improving discipline, work performance, and job satisfaction. It also inspires the self-esteem and self-confidence of employees. I find goal-setting theory and the expectancy theory of motivation very practical. It is because the arguments are straight forward and relate to goal setting and the process of achieving the goal rather than explaining the reason behind motivation.

Leader within the Organization

Emotional intelligence is an essential asset in conflict management in an organization. As a leader, i should be in a position to handle negotiations on matters of conflicts whether it arises out of a clash of needs values or interests resulting in either task, process, or relationship disagreement. Emotional intelligence acknowledges that individual differences, such as culture, moods, emotions, personality traits, and sexuality. According to Kelly and Kaminskienė (2016), the emotional aspects of the negotiation process are as good as the rational aspects of the negotiation process. Therefore, the capacity to be aware of one’s emotions control and express them perfectly will result in a fruitful negotiation process.

Additionally, I also scored similar points on aspects of organizational loyalty, appreciating colleagues, criticizing constructively, and giving positive feedback. Also, treating others with dignity and respect as well as responding to individuals who are upset with me. Markedly, there is a strong correlation between emotional intelligence (EI) and effective leadership. Strong EI ensures that people can develop group goals, provoke enthusiasm, influence colleagues on the importance of work, generate confidence and trust as well as encourage decision making. Notably, traits are external behaviors that emerge from mental processes, and it is the internal beliefs that define effective leadership.

Influencing others is also one of my core strengths. I give others the information they need to execute their duties. I always strive to create an environment of growth for my subordinates by supporting them through mentorship as well as showing concern about their emotional welfare and being empathetic and connecting with team members on contemporary life issues. Influencing entails coming up with ideas, taking charge, and speaking up for a team (Demirtas, 2015). As a leader, I ensure that I offer constructive criticism to subordinates in order them to be active and efficient while also addressing issues, if any, affects the performance of our group. I believe that to best influence people, you should first treat them with respect and dignity and giving trust no matter their position in the organization.

Additionally, promoting an environment where people can communicate freely helps in creating an influence over others. It is also strengthened by my ideal leadership style of servant leadership and even believing in the team members. Leading from within and lifting people has always proven effective in influencing others. Notably, I can be assertive when needed as influence demands character. Giving praise and recognition where deserved helps to assert influence over others.

Leader within the Organization

Relationship building as a strength attribute relies on my empathy. I can recognize emotion both in myself and others, and it inspires compassionate connection. It is one of the natural traits that I possess, and I am so glad about it. Similarly, I have a habit of being a good listener. Actively listening helps one develop a rapport with other individuals, especially by reflecting emotions (Ritchie, 2019). Through asking a question, I always seek to understand the other person or people better. In a team set up as a team leader, one must ensure that all members’ voices are heard. Listening is also a great asset as it allows others space to think, access their ideas, and participate in a conversation. Giving credible praise and recognition fosters positive emotions and creates instant affection.

To sustain the relationship, I keep always check up on my new contacts, whether colleagues or clients. I also enjoy communicating with others, and I am still honest and fair. Additionally, I always strive to make myself available and accessible in case one needs any form of assistance. As a team leader, I have learned that creating an environment for growth reflects well with my teammates as they feel inspired, and they also value my input in improving their performance. Similarly, the team set up creating shared values upon which the behavior of members has governed a binding relationship as everyone commits to them.

Personality has always been a crucial aspect in determining effective leadership. It is indicated by the grand man theory, which proposes that great leaders are born with inherent traits. Similarly, trait theory also elaborates on the role of characteristics in differentiating leaders. On an individual level, I have a personality blend of decisiveness, honesty, openness, and conscientiousness. Honesty is an attribute that I best portray through actions and communication. It is valuable in establishing and maintaining relationships. Transparency can be described as being experimental, insightful, and imaginative (Owens, 2015). It helps improve communication lines. Decisiveness is the ability to make mindful decisions and sticking by them no matter the outcome. The choices put the organization at the forefront. Conscientiousness evaluates the organizational skills of an individual as well as the thought processes.

Leader within the Organization

Self-concept and self-drive are essential attributes for successful leaders. Self-concept deals with personal awareness, and it includes identifying individual strengths and weaknesses and their impact on others. The three main components of self-concept include self-image, ideal self, and self-esteem (McShane & Von Glinow, 2018).  Self-image is the way we see ourselves, while self- esteem is the value we place on ourselves. Conversely, the perfect person is the version of ourselves that we are seeking to actualize. Self-concept is essential for effective leaders as it helps them have personal and interpersonal awareness as well as providing an understanding of individual behavior and how their beliefs affect themselves and others.

Self-drive is a leadership attribute that entails knowing where one wants to go, the urgency, and how to arrive at the destination (Madanchian et al., 2017). It is a robust motivational desire to achieve set goals and compels leaders to be self-critical and act as their accountability partners. Such leaders have a high locus of control and often inspire leaders to be innovative and to lead the change they want to achieve.

Leader within the Organization

Understanding the Organization’s Functions and Strategic Thinking

I possess leadership strengths in understanding organizational functions. The main features in an organization are classified into departments, which include operation, human resources, customer service, marketing, information technology, along with finance and accounting. It springs from my excellent communication with others regarding work and related tasks as well as giving input to workmates that helps them in doing their work. I have also been performing consistently with my set targets, which is an excellent achievement. It can even be vindicated by my role in training new employees with job training. Additionally, I am in a better position to write reports or perform presentations to colleagues and subordinates.

Leader within the Organization

I pride myself on my strategic thinking as it has helped me set objectives and following them into completion. Notably, it also helps in the development of strategic plans for management. Strategic thinking is essential for any leader in an organization because it is useful for resource allocation since resources are scarce in terms of money people and time (Zenger & Folkman, 2016). Marketing decisions also hugely rely on strategic thinking, along with cost-cutting investment. Change is always imminent in the business world as such strategic thinking will be beneficial when a company is faced with external forces of change such as competition, economic factors, or government regulation. Markedly, it is also crucial in implementing planned change in the organization. For example, it will lead to strategic organizational restructuring, along with the introduction of strategic product lines and services.

Elaborating on the role of strategic thinking in an organizational restructure can be well captured by the challenges the Covid-19 outbreak has caused to leaders in most companies. Employees have been forced to work remotely in efforts to protect the most critical resource in the organization against contracting the coronavirus. Consequently, it has affected tasks and processes that form an organization structure. Leadership that employs strategic thinking will evaluate a feasible structure that will factor in cost reduction while increasing or maintaining profitability levels (Craig, 2018). Strategic decisions might revolve around whether to implement virtual organization structure for support functions and offer protective equipment for the protection of employees dealing with production and distribution of essential services as well as decisions involving downsizing and its impact on the organization structure, culture, and payroll management.

Leader within the Organization

Executional Excellence

Executional excellence is a crucial strength for a leader as it acts as an assurance for leadership success. Being an achiever entails being diligent and working hard to accomplish set goals (Srivastava, 2014). I excel in a team set up and often feel the need to take charge. It helps me in building relationships and also creating trust with colleagues, which acts as a source of inspiration. Because of this, people believe that I can solve problems and put things for them. I tend to accept ownership for team decisions so that I can draw inspiration to excel from the sense of accountability. Being close to the business gives a broader view of the direction the organization is taking.

Curiosity drives me to find better ways of doing things. I am also a good learner and tries to identify my strengths and weaknesses in performance to improve myself. I understand that tolerance and flexibility are essential qualities for desired individual and group performance and strive to pursue them. For one to excel, consistency is crucial, and therefore, I strive to achieve consistency in my performance. My executional excellence can be vindicated by the long overtime hours I put in to ensure that I undertake my duties, and I am also always willing to lend a helping hand in assisting colleagues in finishing their tasks.

Areas of Development

I need to improve on aspects that deal with my reaction to employees’ quality of work going down due to personal or family matters better. I have noticed that I observe their situation but prefer to give them their own space to handle their case. It ultimately affects group performance and organizational output, and as such, I should engage them more to try and find out possible outcomes. In addition to that, I should also be in a position to offer counsel to such employees. To best achieve this, I will first question myself to try and figure out the problem better. Possibly the colleagues are not even aware that they are underperforming or they are not receiving adequate training.

Leader within the Organization

Similarly, avoiding emotional confrontation, being prepared, and specific while speaking to the colleague is essential. Ideally, understanding the role of the external factors in the underperformance is necessary (Puccio et al., 2018). Enrolling in coaching training for I as well as ensuring the colleague receives external counseling by a professional will help the situation. Finally, designing a follow-up process to check on him regularly or her will help me improve on that aspect of my leadership.

Accepting change is not an easy process, sometimes even for leaders. A successful transition is an enormous organizational challenge. Institutional change is the transformation of the work setting. Forces of change are coercive factors and do not result from planning or deliberate intervention (McShane & Von Glinow, 2018). There are both internal and external forces for change. Despite organizations putting aside resources to promote change, most change initiatives fail. To be a champion of change, a leader has to review processes, risks, and growth opportunities on a personal level as well as soliciting feedback from top contributors. Additionally, for a leader to become a champion of change, he or she should enroll in a coaching program to coach his or her level of influence and impact, as discussed below.

The influence of leaders is the most significant catalyst to inspire change in an organization. The influence training focuses on critical traits such as strategic intelligence on cohesive power and people skills to help considerable influence on both internal and external stakeholders. Similarly, social awareness and consideration is an essential aspect of training. Examination of the individual impact of leaders’ decisions on employees is a critical aspect of promoting successful change. The leadership training for a leader to become an agent of change involves building trust and transparency skills. It also entails learning to integrate personal and organizational goals as a leader into a cohesive force. Markedly, Change leadership should involve effective communication of the plans and reasons for change, collaborating with all stakeholders as well as committing to the idea of evolution by being resilient and persistent.

Leader within the Organization

Conducting formal employee performance appraisals is also an area for improvement. Before performing an official employee annual review, I should strategize on the whole process by identifying aspects to be evaluated as well as preparing for the conversation with the employee. The discussion will entail aspects such as attendance, reliability, and punctuality, along with problem-solving and communication as success indicators (Knight, 2011). Additionally, accuracy and quality of work, teamwork along with collaboration, as well as the ability to meet deadlines and accomplish goals. Part of the annual review will also entail compensation and ranks. It is essential to separate the talks of payment from the performance appraisal. The manager’s ratings influence the rank aspects.

Notably, planning for the best approach to use is essential for balancing both positive and negative feedback to leave the employee motivated. In preparation, reviewing the performance expectations, aspirations, and ambitions set at the beginning of the year will offer a standard for performance evaluation (Srivastava, 2014). Laying background for the conversation via reviewing notes kept about the employee’s performance as well as asking feedback from colleagues provides insight on his or her performance.

Leader within the Organization

Setting guidelines on how other employees treat one another is an area of improvement. Conduct in the work environment is an important aspect. As a leader, cultivating a culture of respect determines behavior in the work environment. Compliance should be implemented in the workplace based on the golden rule. It includes diversity in rights, religion, opinions, wishes, and experiences. Desired conducted can be motivated by implementing new regulations, policies, and fines for misconduct (Puccio et al., 2018). Conflicts often arise in an organization. The best way to set guidelines on how employees treat one another is through leading by example.

Determination of workforce requirements in my department and writing job description for them is another aspect of improvement. It is because staffing is a human resource function, and as a department, the only role we play is requesting for personnel to fill current or future vacant positions. A job description is an outline of duties and responsibilities for a specific post issued to an applicant. The responsibilities should always be listed according to their frequency and priority (Zenger & Folkman, 2016). Other essential items include the job description is the job title, job purpose, unique demands, and summary of the objective of the job. The requirements include academic qualifications, level of experience, skillset, and knowledge components such as communication, emotional, technical, and physical aspects as well as characteristics and personality traits.

Preferred Leadership Styles 

A participative management style is a leadership approach that empowers members of an organization to engage in the decision-making process. It employs practical listening skills and communication to engage other people in building consensus and influencing decisions. Achievement-oriented leadership style appeals to me because it requires employees to perform work at their highest levels possible (Landis, Hill & Harvey, 2014). It is ideal because it entails effective time management and clear goal communication. Notably, leaders are ready to offer mentorship and coaching. It places trust in the delegation of duties and the subordinate’s ability to execute delegated responsibility remarkably.

Leader within the Organization

Supportive leadership style offers emotional and psychological support to subordinates/ Supportive leaders are focused on identifying what changes and support are required to ensure the wellbeing of their team. They are also focused on giving the employees tools needed to produce results and do not give orders or employ micromanagement (McShane & Von Glinow, 2018). They are also friendly and approachable and make work pleasant. Such a style creates room for a mentoring approach to support the employees.

Transformational leadership perceives leaders as agents of change. It entails creating, communicating, and structuring a shared vision for the institution. Transformational leaders portray exemplary leadership and bring inspiration and engagement that improves subordinates’ job satisfaction (Landis, Hill & Harvey, 2014). Similarly, servant leadership fosters community values and empowers employees. Servant leadership has several numbers of advantages. Firstly it encourages employee loyalty as the employees feel valued as they are engaged in decision making. It also leads to high performance.

Leader within the Organization


Effective leaders are transformational and communicate desired objectives and model such objectives around their personal beliefs. They hold themselves accountable and rely on integrity as an essential virtue in leadership. Leadership help maximizes efficiency while achieving organizational goals. It inspires individual efforts towards a collective goal. It also helps create a pleasant working environment that aims at improving employee performance. Good leaders are passionate and don’t lose sight of what they do (Cherry, 2019). Leaders need to understand organizational behavior to be able to develop relationships between management and employees as well as be effective in motivating, predicting, and controlling employee behavior. Notably, different leadership styles are suitable at particular circumstances, and as such, leaders should be flexible and adaptable to situational requirements. APA.


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Demirtas, O. (2015). Ethical leadership influence at organizations: Evidence from the field. Journal of Business Ethics126(2), 273-284.

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Kelly, E. J., & Kaminskienė, N. (2016). Importance of emotional intelligence in negotiation and mediation. International Comparative Jurisprudence2(1), 55–60 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icj.2016.07.001

Knight, R. (2011). Delivering an Effective Performance Review. Retrieved 8 June 2020, from https://hbr.org/2011/11/delivering-an-effective-perfor

Landis, E. A., Hill, D., & Harvey, M. R. (2014). A synthesis of leadership theories and styles. Journal of Management Policy and Practice15(2), 97.

Madanchian, M., Hussein, N., Noordin, F., & Taherdoost, H. (2017). Leadership Effectiveness Measurement and Its Effect on Organization Outcomes. Procedia Engineering181, 1043-1048. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.02.505

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Puccio, G., Burnett, C., Acar, S., Yudess, J., Holinger, M., & Cabra, J. (2018). Creative Problem-Solving in Small Groups: The Effects of Creativity Training on Idea Generation, Solution Creativity, and Leadership Effectiveness. The Journal of Creative Behavior54(2), 453-471. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.381

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January 24, 2024
January 24, 2024

Data Security & Backup

Cyber security is a universal challenge with need for critical data protection a fundamental function of every computer system to avoid data hacking, access to data as well as manipulation and interference. This paper explains about the possible measures of securing key data in the computer systems against hacking, recommended frequency for critical data back up as well as the devices used for data back up and safe storage of the backups against interference.

Data Security & Backup

Data Security & Backup

Firstly, is the use of Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI), a computer virtualization technique in which the computer operating system controls and is conducted in a data center. Key data is secure because all data is stored in the data center, not in the endpoint device. Secondly, use of Virtual Private Network (VPN) a network security measure that encrypts data passing through it by creating a tunnel using security protocol hence hackers and ISPs cannot access key data (Harvey, Douglas & Gillian 24). Thirdly, hardware data security can be accomplished through disk encryption which prevents read and writes access to critical data as well as data masking a process through which original data is hidden in random characters or codes. In addition to that the use of very strong passwords which consists of a combination of characters and numbers with at least 8 to 12 characters long helps secure data stored in both hardware and software devices.

Data Security & Backup

The next stage is data back up, it is recommended to be undertaken weekly to avoid data loss due to a violation of data security. Notably, in the event of data loss one still has access to it by restoring the backup, it also avoids data being compromised. To achieve this, Automatic software options are available that one can use set to a backup at a selected time of the day or week such as cloud computing (Harvey, Douglas & Gillian 45). Data Backup can be performed manually on hard disks, USB jump drive, burned to a CD or DVD which should be stored offline. Safe data storage is an essential part of data security. Cloud back up services puts valuable information in an offsite repository that never goes offline and is available from anywhere. Finally, online sites such as Google Drive platform as well as Dropbox enable backup diversification of critical data.

To sum up, key data safety is a priority for all individuals. It is recommended that one should back up critical data frequently using software such as cloud computing for real time access as well as online sites such as google drive and drop box which offers security against hacking. MLA.

Works Cited

Harvey, Douglas Ross, and Gillian Oliver. Digital curation. ALA Neal-Schuman, 2016.

January 24, 2024

Constitutional Protection – Individual Rights


Protection of individual rights elaborated in the bill of rights is facilitated by the constitution through the incorporation of the due process of law, the state of action doctrine and the equal protection clause (Brennan and William 56). The doctrine of due process in the 14th amendment ensures the state will not dispossess an individual of liberty, property or life unaccompanied by application of the necessary procedure of legislation. Notably, the doctrine of the expected process of law lays hold of rights in the bill of rights and relates them to the State. Secondly, the state of action doctrine refers to any government action in this case local governments are considered arms of the state. It acts as a backup plan to the bill of rights in coverage of private conduct. The state of action clause empowers Congress to pass laws that apply constitutional standards to private conduct. Finally, equal protection clause undertakes constitutional mandate to protect citizens from discrimination based on race or disability notwithstanding other factors. The doctrine offers legal guarantee that no group or person will be repudiated legal protection that is enjoyed by similar groups or persons.

Constitutional Protection - Individual Rights

Constitutional Protection – Individual Rights

Individual liberties refer to the rights of each person to pursue goals and life without constraint from other people or the government (Monk and Linda 7). Individual rights include liberty to live, liberty to freedom, right to privacy, liberty to pursue goals and dreams, liberty to seek happiness, right to protect oneself and one’s family, liberty to think, speech, work and right to worship. Justice, on the other hand, is a legal system which protects both legal and natural rights as well as punishing wrongs using fairness. The bill of rights is a conventional statement of the civil and legal liberties of the people of any state, federation or country (Monk and Linda 13). The first eight amendments are procedural and essential individual rights. The 9th and 10th encompass amendments of general rules of the association between citizens, states and the federal government.

The constitution does a good job of protection of individual rights because, first of all, it is a fundamental task that aims at creating a free society, the core of American democracy where each right bears a responsibility. Prejudice and the repression of rights are the incentives of instability (Freeman 21). The constitution also eliminates doctrinal confusion by providing a mechanism for interpretation of what constitute rights hence facilitating the protection of such rights. Individual liberties are crucial for free markets, protection of these rights such as liberty to own private property and the right to judicial remedy are prerequisites for promoting economic growth, entrepreneurship and investment.

Constitutional Protection – Individual Rights


The basic requirement of the legal due process is that an individual ought to have a chance for hearing before deprivation of life any important property or liberty. Legal due process lays hold of liberties and relates them to the state. In the case of Gitlow v. New York, it was established by the Supreme Court  that the First Amendment pertaining liberty to free speech as among the liberties safeguarded by the Due Process Doctrine. As per the Supreme Court, both the federal government and state government should not deny an individual his statutory right to speech. Supreme Court decisions are regarded to have greatly affected every other area, criminal civil of state action to the extent of affecting state court judges. However, both state and federal courts are ought to be custodians of individual liberties.

The expected process of law provision relates during instances which the state acts against citizens when some features unique to them are involved. Before the government s terminates a welfare recipient’s benefits, the government must provide a full hearing before the litigation officer. The essential expected process offers the provision of law on things such as the right to marry, parenthood and work in an ordinary kind of job. Decisions enforcing the guarantee of the due process explains the importance of property and liberty in light of situations in existence in modern society. Property embraces substantive presumptions such as driver’s license and the legal entitlement to minimal economic aid, workingman’s wages as well as continued ownership and consumption of commodities purchased under conditional sale contracts.

Constitutional Protection – Individual Rights

The right to a fast and public litigation undertaken by an equitable jury as well as the right to have a mandatory procedure for obtaining witnesses is fundamental for the due process. The conception of liberty recognizes undeniable propositions that prisoners and paroles retain some vestiges of human dignity, hence prison and parole process ought to provide some form of notification and hearing prior to confinement in solitary or the renunciation of parole.

The Supreme Court finds no autonomy interest in the reputation of a person who has on no occasion been tried and thus not convicted who bears a public brand of a criminal by the police without benefit of notice.

Activities withholding the due process are against the law. To illustrate this, concepts of liberty and property recognize that under modern circumstances, incumbent public employees may not have their logical expectation of extended employment, and school children liberty to a public education revoked without notice and opportunity to be heard.

Constitutional Protection – Individual Rights


The equal protection doctrine needs states to execute equal protection. Equal protection compels a state to govern fairly not draw distinctions between persons solely on differences that are peripheral to a genuine government aim. As such it is the statutory assurance that no individual or group will be repudiated constitutional protection that is enjoyed by similar individuals or groups (Barnes 394). The Supreme Court in use of the uniform safety of the United States federal law currently prohibits discrimination in housing based on religion, race, color, origin, sex, national or handicap, conversely, it permits discrimination against children only in eligible elderly citizen population. Status and rights of aliens, access to courts, abortion and voting requires equal protection.

Political process concept under equal protection doctrine prohibits admissions based on racial inclination by implementing statutes benefitting racial minorities to an increasingly cumbersome political process than that imposed on other statutes. The state is prohibited from inflicting extra burdens beyond those of political process on laws benefitting minorities (Barnes 393). Correspondingly, the Supreme Court ratified a state constitutional amendment that, inter alia, forbid public universities from using race as a component in the admissions process. Plurality’s test consequences count as racial damages in addition to being imprecise requiring the kind of race-based examination that the five conservative justices have consistently pursued to abolish. The concept applies firm investigation when the political procedure and decision-making methods used to address racially responsive statute is singled out for strange and unfavorable treatment.

Constitutional Protection – Individual Rights

In the case of City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center, Inc., it was held by Supreme Court that less privileged individuals are only qualified to logical basis review under the equal protection clause. State laws still prejudice against people with disabilities, most individuals with a psychiatric disorder in voting, commitment proceedings, provision licenses as well as welfare benefits.  Statutes by the federal governments are implemented so as to confront exclusions created by states’ laws (Waterstone and Michael 541). The first title of the Americans with Disability Act forbids prejudice on less privileged individuals in work set up and ensures that institutions accommodate them at their cost hence promoting inclusion of persons with disabilities in the work environment. Additionally, section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act disallows prejudice against less privileged people in structures receiving federal economic assian stance.

In the light of the equal protection clause, people with disability ought to be protected against discrimination and should access equal opportunities as other citizens. Political process doctrine protects individual rights of racial minorities and prohibits racial based discrimination. The doctrine offers a constitutional guarantee that the state shall practice equal protection to all citizens.

Constitutional Protection – Individual Rights


The state of action requirement constitutes the legislative amendments protecting individual liberty specifically the bill of rights as well as the 14th amendment often described as prohibitions against state action. Litigations alleging statutory violations on state action must prove how the state or federal government is liable for violations of such rights. To begin with, Congress is prohibited from making a law infringing upon the liberties of religion as well as speech (Mack and Kenneth 351). No state shall contravene the right of fair litigation by an impartial jury, nor the liberty of conscience. In spite of this, the doctrine is viewed as contradictory and inconsistent. However, this doctrine offers the support framework for other doctrines such as due process of law and equal protection clause which all are mechanisms for the protection of individual liberty by the legislation. Additionally, state action clause helps in mitigating the state’s power against infringement of the individual rights.

The 14th Amendment provides that people and private institutions do not have a statutory right to run and operate devoid of legislative norms mandating fairness, tolerance, and equality (Mack and Kenneth 370). For instance, privately owned organizations do not have a legal right to discriminate on the basis of race. State action clause does not defend the rights of people to be at the liberty of state control but rather empowers rights of the citizens to democratically establish the society they wish to live in.

Constitutional Protection – Individual Rights

All states ought not strip of any citizen life, property as well as liberty in the absence of application of expected process legislation or renounce any individual in the range of its authority the uniform conservation of the laws. The government ought not to invade the fundamental rights of the people because the state is mainly a servant of its citizen based on the priority of constitutional values (Mack and Kenneth 364). The rights of the citizen rank above the powers of government thus State’s action is subject to people’s fundamental rights. Constitutional law is central to United State’s society and our system of law. It forms a democracy governed by the majority rule with protection against the majority rule if unconstitutional. The undeniable rights of fairness, liberty and equality are shielded from interference even when the majority of the people wish to violate those rights. The duty to execute its prohibitions against state action responsibility is vested with the courts.

To sum up, the political question doctrine supplements situations where the constitutional law does not relate or where it occurs in a mild form. Additionally, the 14th Amendment clause limits powers of the state against any instances of violation of individual rights.

Constitutional Protection – Individual Rights


Protection of individual liberties is achieved via the application of due process of law, the state of action doctrine and the equal protection c0ncepts as explained above. (Brennan and William 56). The state ought not to dispossess an individual of liberty, life or property without application of the due procedure of law. The state of action doctrine acts as a backup plan to the bill of rights in coverage of private conduct and also empowers Congress to pass laws that apply constitutional standards to private conduct. Finally, equal protection clause undertakes constitutional mandate to protect citizens from discrimination based on race or disability offering a constitutional guarantee. MLA.

Works Cited

Freeman, Michael. Human rights. John Wiley & Sons, 2017.

Brennan Jr, William J. “State Constitutions and the Protection of Individual Rights.” Harvard Law Review, vol. 90, no. 3, Jan. 1977, p. 489. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=8604796&site=ehost-live.

Barnes, Jeb. “Enforcing the Equal Protection Clause: Congressional Power, Judicial Doctrine, and Constitutional Law.” Political Science Quarterly (Wiley-Blackwell), vol. 132, no. 2, Summer 2017, pp. 393–394. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1002/polq.12648.

Waterstone, Michael E. “Disability Constitutional Law.” Emory Law Journal, vol. 63, no. 3, Jan. 2014, pp. 527–580. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=94773927&site=ehost-live.

Mack, Kenneth W. “Civil Disobedience, State Action, and Lawmaking outside the Courts: Robert Bell’s Encounter with American Law.” Journal of Supreme Court History, vol. 39, no. 3, Nov. 2014, pp. 347–371. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/j.1540-5818.2014.12053.x.

Monk, Linda R. The Bill of Rights: A User’s Guide. Hachette Books, 2018

January 24, 2024
January 24, 2024

Han & Qin Chinese History


Qin Shi was an emperor during the Qin regime. The period features advanced technology in military weapons and education. The dynasty came to eminence after conquering adversary states such as the Zhou regime. On the other hand, Emperor Gaozu established the Han regime. He adopted a majority of Qin’s dynasty policies and customs.  Han Wudi revolutionized the dynasty before it collapsed under Xian’s leadership. This paper discusses the Han and Qin periods of Chinese history.

The Qin Regime

Unification of Ancient China by Qin Shi Huangdi

Key events during his tenure led to the unification of China. It can be argued that the Great Wall of China offered protection to people living in China from the northern invasion, especially the Mongols. Its construction united them for an ordinary course. Also, the construction of the Lingqu canal connected Canton Area to the Yangtze River basin through river Li offering excellent mobility (Jichun && Xiaocong, 2018). Notably, appointments were made on merit rather than hereditary. Such a state of affairs offered many people opportunities for employment.

Han & Qin Chinese History

Ideally, Qin established new ways of doing things that would act as the norm across the dynasty. Such innovations and ideas involved the standardization of coins, weights, and measures.  The only legalized coin for trade purposes was bronze in nature, rounded and with a hole in the center in the shape of a square. Additionally, writing and modes of transport were also standardized. Standardization of writing enabled bureaucrats across the regime to read documented communications (Sanft, 2014). It also enabled the leadership to overcome cultural barriers between different provinces hence uniting China. The preferred mode of transport was chariots with axle widths. Such standardization efforts resulted in a standard way of doing this that united ancient China.

Han & Qin Chinese History

Government structure

Qin highly relied on bureaucracy in his administration. There was a great chain of command with the hierarchy of officials, both military and civil, all serving the first emperor. The division of China into larger provinces was witnessed, with each province being assigned top military officials rather than members of the royal family (Sanft, 2018). The establishment of a police force within his government led to the seizure of all personal weapons that were formerly owned by members of the warring communities. New laws and policies were implemented that led to the end of Feudalism. Qin significantly invested in the military; they advanced weaponry from bronze swords to sharp iron swords. Such a move resulted in the government having much power and control.

He structured centralized political sovereignty by gaining control over peasants who formed the most significant part of the workforce. The rich were relocated to the capital to get the support of the high social class. Notably, he removed power from the noble class to deal with the disloyal nobility of the Zhou was a move to galvanize his authority. He also developed a postal system as well as conducting a census of the people. Standardization of currency was seen as a means of exerting control over the dynasty. During his tenure, irrigation systems and highways were built (Jichun && Xiaocong, 2018). The Great Wall of China, for example, helped protect the people of China from the northern invasion, especially the Mongols.

Han & Qin Chinese History

Legalist Philosophical System

          Legalism was the legitimate philosophy resulting in other philosophies being suppressed, such as Confucianism, Daoism, and Mohism. Legalism proclaimed that a stable state was a necessity to diminish human self-interest. He was responsible for the burning of philosophical texts and history books except those of Qin State. More than four hundred and sixty Confucian scholars were buried alive. Such events ended many schools of thought. Under the help of Li Si, the Prime Minister, the writing system was standardized into consistent shape and size across the country. Efforts mentioned earlier would unify Chinese culture for ages. Legalism greatly denounced the Feudalism and called for harsh retribution for disobedience of the first emperor.


Standardization was mainly for coins, weights, and measures, writing as well as modes of transport. The only legalized coin for trade purposes was bronze in nature, rounded and with a hole in the center in the shape of a square. Standardization of writing enabled bureaucrats across the regime to read documented communications (Sanft, 2014). It was institutionalized by Prime Minister Li Si. It also enabled the leadership to overcome cultural barriers between different provinces hence uniting China.

The written language during the Qin dynasty was logographic.   The preferred mode of transport was chariots with axle widths. Additionally, the commissioning of the legalist philosophical system standardized operations that relied on the feudal system.  Such standardization efforts resulted in a standard way of doing things that united ancient China.

Han & Qin Chinese History

Theoretical Reasons for the dynasty to last 15 years 

One of the key reasons as to why the regime did not last for long can be attributed to the overreliance on brutal methods of maintaining power. Such brutal techniques influenced defiance from the people, especially the conscripted field workforce that consisted of farmers and peasants.

One theory explains that Qin was overly suspicious of his death, and as such, he survived many death attempts. According to Huang (2017), his death was as a result of his obsession with immortality, where he died of poisoning from the immortality concoction made by his alchemists and sorcerers. The Qin Regime lasted for 15 years between 221BCE to 206 BCE.

Chaos and the Rise of Common Man Rebel Liu Bang (256 – 195 BC)

Qin died on a trip to the eastern regions of his territory as reported where he had gone to obtain a panacea from magicians in Tao. He was escorted by Zhao Gao, the Chief Eunuch, and Li Si, the Prime Minister (Lin, Peach && Fang, 2019). Zhao Gao and Li Si concealed information regarding death until their return, where they changed the will to put Huhai, son of Qin, on the throne as he could be easily manipulated. Huhai was then renamed Qin Er Shi, he executed several princes and ministers as well as arresting messengers who brought bad news.

He was extravagant as he commissioned several building projects, increased taxes, and enlarged the army. It led to chaos, which resulted in officials being attacked uprising of revolt armies, several people declaring themselves kings of the territories they seized. Li Si and Zhao Gao fell out, which led to the beheading of Li Si. Zhao subsequently compelled Qin Er Shi to execute suicide for his failings in leadership. Such turn of events led to Ziying, nephew to Qin Er Shi, to assume power. Ziying prosecuted Zhao Gao. However, he was unable to calm the unrest that had rapidly developed, with several state officials proclaiming to be kings of various regions they were assigned.

Han & Qin Chinese History

   Ziying, therefore, announced himself the overall king above the other kings. Due to his incompetence, a famous revolt broke out in 209 BCE. The rise of Liu Bang, the rebel, took place during the revolt where Ziying was defeated by Chu rebels and surrendered in 207 BCE under the leadership of Liu Bang.  Xiang Yu was the group leader of the Chu Rebels, and as such, he executed Ziying and later destroyed the Qin capital.

The Han Regime

Liu Bangs founding of the great Han Dynasty (206 BCE to 220 AD)

After the execution of Ziying, Liu Bang was given the region of Han River Valley to administer.  He waged war against local kings, successfully defeating all the surrounding kings (Lin, Peach && Fang, 2019). It was then that he betrayed Xiang Yu and decided to revolt for three years. Xiang Yu committed suicide in 202 BCE and asserted himself Emperor Gaozu of the established Han regime. He adopted a majority of Qin’s dynasty policies and customs.

Philosophy and Strategies used by the Han Dynasty in its Initial phase (Western Han)

Philosophically, the Han Empire practiced many of the Qin policies. Legalist and the provincial rule was practiced but in a more flexible approach that integrated Confucianism and Daoism in making state policies and decisions.  Strategically, Emperor Gaozu first developed civil service. He identified educated individuals whom he consulted on developing and administration of the empire. Consequently, he institutionalized books, schools, and examinations to form a meritocratic tool upon which the hiring of government officials would be established. He also established the imperial capital at the city of Chang’an. Its strategic location was favored because all major roads converged there.

Han & Qin Chinese History

Compilation of the Huai Nanzi

It comprises of ancient Chinese script composed of scholarly articles of a series of debates held at Liu An’s court. The essays integrate concepts of Daoism, Confucianism, and Legalism aimed at finding the required qualifications for the order both socially and politically. The text summarizes that social order requires a perfect ruler. The texts act as a handbook for reference by future leadership.

How Han Wudi Transformed China

Han Wudi revolutionized ancient China in two fronts, both through economic industrialization and military feats. Firstly, he established government industries specializing in salt, wine and iron, transportation, and service delivery (Lin, Peach && Fang, 2019). Secondly, he institutionalized income tax and forth with its government control. The establishment of farming reforms that led to widespread agricultural practice was part of the reforms.

Han Wudi made changes in the education system by creating a civil service examination as well as establishing an Imperial University. Additionally, he established the Silk Road on his diplomatic missions to Central Asia and the Mediterranean regions that led to the expansion of trade routes economically improving the Han Dynasty (Lin, Peach && Fang, 2019). Some of his military feats are evidence by the doubling of the size of the empire conquering Korea, parts of Turkistan, Manchuria, northern Vietnam as well as Inner Mongolia. Such expansion resulted in improved trade contacts and expansion of the Silk Road.

Han & Qin Chinese History

Accomplishments of Han Wudi in Making Confucianism State Philosophy

            Emperor Wu much experimented with socialism, resulting in the reassembling and transcription of Confucian doctrines. The aggregation of ethical Confucian ideas resulted in it becoming a single official philosophy. New ideas were developed that enabled that comfortably allowed individuals to accept social responsibility and position and justified their view of state power. On the other hand, the ideals put on pressure to the state to act impartially towards the citizens. The state relied on the proceeds of agricultural activities and land taxes, which encouraged individuals to work hard.

Personal life and Dark Side of Han Wudi

Emperor Wu, also known as Han Wudi, was known for his pride that made him such a successful and feared warlord. He boasted in his successful military and economic feats and never took accepted failure in his endeavors (De Crespigny, 2017). He had a great passion for horses, preferably from the Fergana region.

The mystic was that they were blood sweating due to skin infection caused by parasites. Han Wudi considered the bleeding of the horses as a sign of grace from heaven. He was viewed as harsh, cruel, and demanding by the army captains from his executive orders. Like Qin Shi, he was lured by the pleasure of immortality. His final years were full of regret and withdrawal due to the death of his son and that of his wife, which he played a part.

Han & Qin Chinese History

Role of Daoism in Mortally Weakening the Dynasty during the Yellow Turbans Rebellion

The Yellow Turbans Rebellion took place during the Eastern Han period of the dynasty under the stewardship of Emperor Ling.  The religious movement of Daoism created an impression that the government had lost its power (Wicky, 2018). The revolution was led by Zhang Jue, a Daoist religious leader. In his teachings, he spread the vision he had seen that a new dynasty referred to as the yellow haven was going to rule for six decades (De Crespigny, 2017). Due to his fame for healing the sick, the vision gained much faith among the followers coupled with the exploitation of peasants from the yellow river region.  It was a source of inspiration for the rebellion.

The Decline of the Han Regime

The Han Regime ended shortly after the Yellow Turbans Rebellion. It occurred during the regime of the last emperor, Xian. Government institutions were destroyed, resulting in regional regimes headed by warlords (Wicky, 2018). Cao Cao made the last efforts to reunite the Han Dynasty is one of the warlords. He was able to reunite the empire under Xian’s leadership but was defeated by war between his troops and allegiance of the other two regimes at the Battle of Red Cliffs. Cao Cao had kidnapped Xian the young emperor forcing him to abdicate the throne to his son. However, it was too late as the dynasty had split into three kingdoms.

Han & Qin Chinese History


Both Qin and Han dynasties have similarities in that they helped unify china through policies and philosophies. The significant difference is that the Qin regime relied on legalism while the Han regime implemented Confucianism. Both dynasties relied on agriculture for economic purposes. However, the Han regime diversified in trade and industrialization. In my opinion, the Han Regime was better than the Qin regime.


(APA referencing style)

Sanft, C. (2014). Communication and Cooperation in Early Imperial China: Publicizing the Qin Dynasty. SUNY Press.

Huang, J. (2017). Research on the Causes of the Destruction of the Qin Dynasty. In 2017 3rd International Conference on Economics, Social Science, Arts, Education, and Management Engineering (ESSAEME 2017). Atlantis Press.

De Crespigny, R. (2017). Portents of Protest in the Later Han Dynasty: the memorials of Hsiang K’ai to Emperor Huan. Faculty of Asian Studies in association with Australian National University Press.

Sanft, C. (2018). The Qin Dynasty. In Routledge handbook of early Chinese history (pp. 146-159). Routledge.

Lin, C., Peach, T., & Fang, W. (Eds.). (2019). The Political Economy of the Han Dynasty and Its Legacy. Routledge.

Jichun, Y., & Xiaocong, Z. (2018). On Economic Development of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce in the Early Qin Dynasty. Agricultural Archaeology, (1), 7.

Wicky, W. K. (2018). The Collapse of China’s Later Han Dynasty, 25-220 CE: The Northwest Borderlands and the Edge of Empire. Routledge.